Grapevine rootstock selector tool

The tool takes you through a series of multiple choice options/questions that help to describe the characteristics of your site and to better understand your requirements, then uses the information to identify rootstocks for you to consider.

For the following steps, details of your scion, i.e. that part of a grapevine joined to the rootstock by grafting or budding and usually supplying solely the aerial parts to the graft, examples including Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay, are not required, since the outputs of the tool are generic across scions. For rootstocks identified by the tool, information on known incompatibilities with scions is provided under Show/Hide details for each identified rootstock. 

If you require assistance, please view the How to use page.


Rootstock performance is impacted by water supply, determined by irrigation water availability and climate. For the tool to identify potential rootstocks for your site, a consideration of climate and water availability are required in order to assist you in making a choice or choices from the Climate / Water availability matrix that follows.

Consider how you would describe your regions climate and how much
irrigation water you are likely to have.

Climate is based on mean January temperature
Hot: >22 ℃
Warm: 20 – 21.9 ℃
Cool: <19.9 ℃
Reference: Dry and Smart, 1988 5

The Rootstock Selector Tool uses rootstock tolerance to drought to identify rootstocks that tolerate different levels of water availability.


Choose from any of the nine climate / water availability options in the following matrix, then answer the questions that follow.

You may wish to explore a range of scenarios to compare what rootstocks the tool identifies for consideration.

Cool climate Warm climate Hot climate
Ample irrigation
Limited irrigation
No irrigation

What is the desired level of vine vigour?

There is a link between rootstock vigour and vine (scion) vigour. However, in the vineyard factors such as scion type, soil type, pruning style, irrigation and nutrition also impact upon the vine.

The Rootstock Selector Tool uses vigour conferred to the scion by a rootstock to provide a vigour ranking for the rootstock.

Interactions between water availability and vine vigour are not taken into account by the tool. For example, vine vigour may be reduced under conditions of limited or no irrigation, hence in scenarios involving limited or no irrigation and where lower vigour is desired, it is suggested to explore moderate or even high vigour options and to discuss the rootstocks identified with your nursery or other specialist. The same applies to salinity, where vine vigour may be reduced as soil salinity increases.

What is the salt content of your soil?

Salt content of the irrigation water can influence the salt content of the soil.

Salinity of a soil saturation paste, measured as electrical conductivity (EC), can be ranked in terms of severity as follows:

Non Saline <2 dS/m
Slightly Saline 2-4 dS/m
Moderately Saline 4-8 dS/m
Very Saline >8 dS/m

For comparison of soil saturation paste EC values with 1:5 soil water suspension EC values see Table 3.10 on page 17 of the Salinity Management Interpretation Guide.

Rootstocks vary in their capacity to tolerate saline soils.

Situations of very saline soil with no irrigation will not be viable except potentially in short term situations, even with higher vigour, salt excluding rootstocks.

How does the soil drain at your vineyard site?

Soils with poor drainage may be susceptible to waterlogging, generally characterized by poor water infiltration at the soil surface, or no infiltration, leading to ponding and the potential for anaerobic conditions to develop.

Rootstocks vary in their capacity to tolerate waterlogged soils.

What is the pH of your soil?
Strongly acidic pH <5.5
Weakly acidic pH 5.5 - 6.5
Neutral pH 6.5 - 7.5
Weakly alkaline pH 7.5 - 8.5
Strongly alkaline pH >8.5

Do you need rootknot nematode tolerant rootstocks for your soil type?

Root knot nematodes are more likely to be a problem in light sandy soils than in heavier soil types.

For more information on rootstock tolerances to other nematodes click on the ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ tab which is located at the end of the information provided under ‘Show/hide details’ for each rootstock.

Three main types of root knot nematode are found in Australian soils. They are Meloidogyne javanica, M. arenaria and M. incognita. All are taken into consideration in ranking rootstock tolerances.


Based on your choices there are:

Available rootstocks


Based on your requirements and the attributes that best describe your site, rootstocks identified as potentially suitable for you to discuss with your nursery or other specialists are:


101-14

Climate Cool Warm Hot
Vineyard Characteristics Rootstock Attributes *Weighted average rating
Irrigation water availability Drought tolerance 1.59
Overall vineyard vigour Vigour conferred by rootstock to scion 2.36
Soil salinity Tolerance to saline soil 3.61
Soil drainage Tolerance to waterlogging 2.78
Soil pH Tolerance to soil acidity 1.33
Soil pH Tolerance to soil lime 2.15
Occurrence of Nematodes Resistance to Root Knot Nematodes 3.71

 *1 = low, 2 = low to moderate, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high

For reference information on these and all other rootstock attributes click on ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ below.

Notes:

  • Shallow root system3;
  • improves fruit set96
  • Long term exposure to moderately saline soil (saturation paste EC 2-6 dS/m) may result in high levels of Cl and Na in grape juice 60,116.
  • Moderate yields in cool & warm climates, high yield in hot climates96.
  • Suited to Chard, Sauv Blanc and Pinot Noir in Adelaide Hills because of devigorating effects96.
  • Susceptible to effects of waterlogging during establishment96.
  • Yield decline observed under growing conditions where limited amounts of saline water were applied116

Incompatible with: Alicante Bouschet36, Colombard3,10,36 , Trebbiano3,10, Chardonnay10,56, Chasselas Dore10, Emperor10, Fetyaska10, Muscat Gordo Blanco10, Muscat Hamburg10, Riesling Italico10, Souzao36, Shiraz10,36,56, Tinta Barocca36, Ugni Blanc10,36
Waltham Cross10 , Zante Currant10

Resistance to crown gall (Agrobacterium) 4 4,19,23,26 4,19,23,26
Resistance to Cylindrocarpon sp. 3 9,23,102,207 2 26 9,23,102,207,26
Resistance to Fusarium sp.    
Resistance to Phytophthora sp.    
Resistance to Pythium sp.    
Resistance to Rhizoctonia sp.    
Resistance to Downy Mildew Plasmopara viticola    
Resistance to Esca    
Resistance to Botryosphaeriaceae species 3 191 191
Drought tolerance 1 3,18,23,24,36,43,52,56,73,96,98,102,103,114,120,141,143,166,208 3 9,26,99,199,207 1 15 2 19,40,47,68,73,102,136,145,192 2-3 73 1-2 140,142 1-3 206 3,18,23,24,36,43,52,56,73,96,98,102,103,114,120,141,143,166,208,9,26,99,199,207,15 ,19,40,47,68,73,102,136,145,192,73,140,142,206
Tendency to K+ deficiency (potassium absorption) 4 30,58,172 3 163 30,58,172,163
Scion grape juice pH 1 15,33,57,61,62,74,95,176 2 30 3 33,116,119,128,141,186 4 76,169,171 5,33,57,61,62,74,95,176,30,33,116,119,128,141,186,76,169,171
Scion grape juice TA 1 33,119 2 30,75,116,128,171,186 3 33,190,201,202 4 33 33,119,30,75,116,128,171,186,33,190,201,202,33
Scion grape juice Phenolics 3 33,75 1 33 4 128 33,75,33,128
Scion grape juice Anthocyanins 3 33 1 33 4 75,82,202 3-4 141 33,33,75,82,202,141
Scion grape juice chloride 1 33,98,106,111,119,122,125,128 2 75,116 4 150 33,75,111,119,125,128,33,116,150,171,201,202
Scion grape juice sodium 1 33,75,111,119,125,128 3 33,116,150,171,201,202 33,75,111,119,125,128,33,116,150,171,201,202
Scion grape juice Phosphorus 3 171 171
Scion grape juice Nitrogen 3 33,172 1 33 33,172,33
Scion grape juice Potassium 3 33,88,96,174,171,201 4 58,141,169,202 1 15,33 33,88,96,174,171,201,58,141,169,202,15,33
Tendency to Mg-deficiency 4 18 3 88,163 18,88,163
Nitrogen Uptake 3 56 4 163 3,4,33,36,56,57,96,98,99,103,128,186,202
Effects on maturity (dependant on crop load) *A 3,4,33,36,56,57,96,98,99,103,128 *D 202 3,4,33,36,56,57,96,98,99,103,128,202
Yield 3 96,119,141,171,185,207 4 57,68,76,96,98 1 116,180,66 2 75,127,128,186,190 96,119,171,185,207,57,68,76,96,98,66,116,180,75,127,128,186,190,141
Rooting depth 1 3 3
Vegetative Cycle *S 18,23,34,52,56,98 18,23,34,52,56,98
Vigour conferred to scion (dependant on vine management and best practise viticulture) 1 23,66,96,186,206 3 3,19,40,56,57,98,99,127,143,177,185 2-3 4,24,142 2 15,18,26,52,68,102,103,166,180,190,208 4 76,207 3,66,96,186,206,3,19,40,56,57,98,99,127,143,177,185,4,24,142,15,18,26,52,68,102,103,166,180,190,208,76,207
Improves fruit set (&/or fertility) 4 96 96
Nematode Resistance 3 36,57,103,207 2 52 4 208 36,57,103,207,52,208
Citrus nematode resistance (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) 2 30 4 33 1 96 30,33, 96
Dagger nematode resistance (Xiphinema index) 3 9,15,102 1 40 9,15,102,40
Pin Nematode Resistance (Criconemella Xenoplax) 2 33 3 33 4 33 33
Root lesion nematode resistance (Pratylenchus spp.) 3 9,15,30,33,102 1 40,96 9,15,30,33,102,40,96
Rootknot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne spp.) 3 3,4,15,19,26,99,102 4 9,18,24,30,33,40,96 2 98 3,4,15,19,26,99,102,9,18,24,30,33,40,96,98
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. arenaria) - aggressive 3 45 45
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. javanica) - 'standard' population 3 45 5 114,117,160,194 4 161 45,114,117,160,194,161
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. incognita) 1&5 160 5 194 160,194
Phylloxera resistance 4 3,4,9,15,23,36,40,57,74,99,102,104,166,206 3 19,26,207 3,4,9,15,23,36,40,57,74,99,102,104,166,206,19,26,207
Phylloxera resistance on leaves (ie tolerance to phylloxera leaf galls)    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 1 5 165 4-5 210 165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 4 5 113,165,210 113,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 7 5 165 4-5 210 165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 19 5 165 4-5 210 165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 20 3 165 4-5 210 165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 30 5 165 4-5 210 165,210
Ease of bench grafting 4 3,32,57,103 2 52 3,32,57,103,52
Ease of rooting 4 3,57,103,166 3 26,52 5 102 3,57,103,166,26,52,102
Affinity with V. vinifera 3 26,206 2 36,52 26,206,36,52
Tolerance to saline soils 4 3,4,19,26,33,40,57,74,76,98,99,102,206,208 5 23,207 2 68 3-4 96
3 60,182 1 36
3,4,19,26,33,40,57,74,76,98,99,102,206,208,15,99 5 23,207 3 60,182,68,96,60,182,36
Salt Tolerance Index 3 128 128
Tolerance to soil acidity 1 3,13,18,19,56,96,98,102 4 207 3,13,18,19,56,96,98,102,207
Tolerance to waterlogging 4 3,26,36,57 3-4 4,68 3 9,18,24,52,56,205,208 1 12,23,96,98 2 19 5 207 3,26,36,57,4,68,9,18,24,52,56,205,208,12,23,96,98,19,207
Lime tolerance (% = active lime). Lime-induced chlorosis = iron chlorosis 1 15,56,68,74,166,206,207 2 73,96,159 3 3,4,18,19,40,57,88,98,99,102 11% 32 9% 36,52,68,73,96,98 15,56,68,74,166,206,207,73,96,159,3,4,18,19,40,57,88,98,99,102,32,36,52,68,73,96,98
Other Characteristics Shallow root system 145. Long term exposure to moderately saline soil (saturation paste EC 2-6 dS/m) may result in high levels of Cl and Na in grape juice 60,116. Moderate yields in cool & warm climates, high yield in hot climates 96. 145,60,116,96
Information    
*Notes Effects on maturity: A = Advance; D = Delay
Vegetative cycle: L = Long; VL = Very Long; M = Medium; S = Short
 

Phylloxera information

As a risk management option, rootstocks can be used to reduce susceptibility of a vineyard to grape phylloxera, compared to the use of own-rooted Vitis vinifera, which is classified as field susceptible. There are currently 83 genetic strains of phylloxera in Australia. The ability of rootstocks to withstand phylloxera may vary depending on the strain or strains of phylloxera in the vineyard. Seven genetic strains, G1, G4, G7, G19, G20, G30 and G38 are currently maintained and used for rootstock screening. G1 and G4 have higher reproductive capabilities and predominate in Phylloxera Infested Zones (PIZs). Depending on the strain, rootstocks may be field susceptible, tolerant or resistant. The available information from field testing is shown for each rootstock. However, not all rootstocks have been field-tested against each of the main phylloxera strains. Only those tested are shown with a colour code. General rootstock rankings of susceptibility, tolerance or resistance to phylloxera have also been obtained from published international literature and are presented using the same ranking system.

Field susceptible rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera breeds freely and the vine is unable to withstand infestation.

Field tolerant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera can feed, reproduce and cause root galling, but to a lesser extent than on own-rooted grapevines.

Field resistant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera cannot develop beyond the first instar to the adult stage and cannot therefore lay eggs. Feeding does not result in root galling.

G1 G4 G7 G19 G20 G30 G38 General Ranking
Susceptible
Tolerant
Resistant
Not tested
See the distribution of the main phylloxera strains in Australia

3306C

Climate Cool [No Reference] Warm [No Reference] Hot [No Reference]
Vineyard Characteristics Rootstock Attributes *Weighted average rating
Irrigation water availability Drought tolerance 3.00
Overall vineyard vigour Vigour conferred by rootstock to scion 2.83
Soil salinity Tolerance to saline soil 1
Soil drainage Tolerance to waterlogging 3.5
Soil pH Tolerance to soil acidity  
Soil pH Tolerance to soil lime 3.5
Occurrence of Nematodes Resistance to Root Knot Nematodes 2.82

 *1 = low, 2 = low to moderate, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high

For reference information on these and all other rootstock attributes click on ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ below.

Notes:

  • Supply of this rootstock in Australia can be very limited so consult your nursery.

Incompatible with: Muscat Blanc, Sangiovese10

No information available for:

  • Rootstock tolerance to soil acidity
Resistance to crown gall (Agrobacterium)    
Resistance to Cylindrocarpon sp.    
Resistance to Fusarium sp.    
Resistance to Phytophthora sp. 1 26,207 26,207
Resistance to Pythium sp.    
Resistance to Rhizoctonia sp.    
Resistance to Downy Mildew Plasmopara viticola    
Resistance to Esca    
Resistance to Botryosphaeriaceae species    
Drought tolerance 3 19,23,26,207 19,23,26,207
Tendency to K+ deficiency (potassium absorption)    
Scion grape juice pH    
Scion grape juice TA    
Scion grape juice Phenolics    
Scion grape juice Anthocyanins    
Scion grape juice chloride  1 122 122
Scion grape juice sodium    
Scion grape juice Phosphorus    
Scion grape juice Nitrogen    
Scion grape juice Potassium    
Tendency to Mg-deficiency    
Nitrogen Uptake    
Effects on maturity (dependant on crop load)    
Yield 2 207 207
Rooting depth 4 23 23
Vegetative Cycle    
Vigour conferred to scion (dependant on vine management and best practise viticulture) 3 15,37,102 2 19,26 4 207 15,37,102, 19,26,207
Improves fruit set (&/or fertility)    
Nematode Resistance 3 36 2 207 1 19,15,102 2 19,30  3 26 36,207,19,15,102.19.30,26
Citrus nematode resistance (Tylenchulus semipenetrans)    
Dagger nematode resistance (Xiphinema index) 3 9 1 15,102 9,15,102
Pin Nematode Resistance (Criconemella Xenoplax)    
Root lesion nematode resistance (Pratylenchus spp.) 4 9,30,97 1 15,102 9,30,97,15,102
Rootknot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne spp.) 1 9,15,102, 2 19,30, 3 26 9,15,102,19,30,26
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. arenaria) - aggressive    
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. javanica) - 'standard' population 5 114,117,160 114,117,160
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. incognita) 1&5 160 160
Phylloxera resistance 4 9,15,36,37,102,104 3 19,26,207 5 23 9,15,36,37,102,104,19,26,207,23
Phylloxera resistance on leaves (ie tolerance to phylloxera leaf galls)    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 1    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 4    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 7    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 19    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 20    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 30    
Ease of bench grafting    
Ease of rooting 3 26 5 102 26,102
Affinity with V. vinifera 3 26,207 26,207
Tolerance to saline soils 1 15 1 19,23,207 15,19,23,207
Salt Tolerance Index    
Tolerance to soil acidity    
Tolerance to waterlogging 3 19 4 207 19,207
Lime tolerance (% = active lime). Lime-induced chlorosis = iron chlorosis  3 15,19,102 11%32 4 207 15,19,102,32,207
Other Characteristics  
Information    

Phylloxera information

As a risk management option, rootstocks can be used to reduce susceptibility of a vineyard to grape phylloxera, compared to the use of own-rooted Vitis vinifera, which is classified as field susceptible. There are currently 83 genetic strains of phylloxera in Australia. The ability of rootstocks to withstand phylloxera may vary depending on the strain or strains of phylloxera in the vineyard. Seven genetic strains, G1, G4, G7, G19, G20, G30 and G38 are currently maintained and used for rootstock screening. G1 and G4 have higher reproductive capabilities and predominate in Phylloxera Infested Zones (PIZs). Depending on the strain, rootstocks may be field susceptible, tolerant or resistant. The available information from field testing is shown for each rootstock. However, not all rootstocks have been field-tested against each of the main phylloxera strains. Only those tested are shown with a colour code. General rootstock rankings of susceptibility, tolerance or resistance to phylloxera have also been obtained from published international literature and are presented using the same ranking system.

Field susceptible rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera breeds freely and the vine is unable to withstand infestation.

Field tolerant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera can feed, reproduce and cause root galling, but to a lesser extent than on own-rooted grapevines.

Field resistant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera cannot develop beyond the first instar to the adult stage and cannot therefore lay eggs. Feeding does not result in root galling.

G1 G4 G7 G19 G20 G30 G38 General Ranking
Susceptible
Tolerant
Resistant
Not tested
See the distribution of the main phylloxera strains in Australia

3309C

Climate Cool [No Reference] Warm [No Reference] Hot [No Reference]
Vineyard Characteristics Rootstock Attributes *Weighted average rating
Irrigation water availability Drought tolerance 1.86
Overall vineyard vigour Vigour conferred by rootstock to scion 2.34
Soil salinity Tolerance to saline soil 1.08
Soil drainage Tolerance to waterlogging 2.36
Soil pH Tolerance to soil acidity 1.86
Soil pH Tolerance to soil lime 2.17
Occurrence of Nematodes Resistance to Root Knot Nematodes 2.08

*1 = low, 2 = low to moderate, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high

For reference information on these and all other rootstock attributes click on ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ below.

Notes:

  • Recommended for varieties with poor set 56,57,98
  • Supply of this rootstock in Australia can be limited so consult your nursery.

Incompatible with: Barbera, Muscat Blanc and Sangiovese3,10

Resistance to crown gall (Agrobacterium) 4 3,19,23,26,57,96,98 3,19,23,26,57,96,98
Resistance to Cylindrocarpon sp. 1 134 134
Resistance to Fusarium sp.    
Resistance to Phytophthora sp. 1 3,57,96,98 2 207 3,57,96,98,207
Resistance to Pythium sp.    
Resistance to Rhizoctonia sp.    
Resistance to Downy Mildew Plasmopara viticola    
Resistance to Esca    
Resistance to Botryosphaeriaceae species 3 191 191
Drought tolerance 1 3,18,23,26,36,52,73,90,96,98,166,207,208 3 9,24,47,56,73 2 19,68,102,103,143 2&4 140 1-2&4 142 4 199 1-4 206 3,18,23,26,36,52,73,90,96,98,166,207,208,9,24,47,56,73,19,68,102,103,143,140,142,199,206
Tendency to K+ deficiency (potassium absorption) 4 3,56,57,96,98 3,56,57,96,98
Scion grape juice pH 1 57 4 64,171,176 3 186 57,64,171,176,186
Scion grape juice TA 1 82 2 171 3 186 4 201 82,171,186,201
Scion grape juice Phenolics    
Scion grape juice Anthocyanins    
Scion grape juice chloride 5 63 63
Scion grape juice sodium 2 171 3 201 1 63 171,201,63
Scion grape juice Phosphorus 2 171 171
Scion grape juice Nitrogen 4 90 90
Scion grape juice Potassium 4 64 1 88 3 171 2 201 64,88,171,201
Tendency to Mg-deficiency 1 18,88 18,88
Nitrogen Uptake 2 56 56
Effects on maturity (dependant on crop load) *A 3,56,57,96,98,103 *D 186,201 3,56,57,96,98,103,186,201
Yield 3 96 3-4 57 1 180 2 171 4 186 96,57,180,171,186
Rooting depth 4 3 3
Vegetative Cycle *M 18,52,56 L 23 18,52,56,23
Vigour conferred to scion (dependant on vine management and best practise viticulture) 1 96 2 3,18,26,52,56,57,68,98,158,166,180,186,208 4 207 3 19,23,24,102,103,142 5 66 96,3,18,26,52,56,57,68,98,158,166,180,186,208,207,19,23,24,102,103,142,66
Improves fruit set (&/or fertility) 4 96 3-4 23 96,23
Nematode Resistance 2 36 1 52,57,208 1 103 3 207 36,52,57,208,103,207
Citrus nematode resistance (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) 1 96 96
Dagger nematode resistance (Xiphinema index) 4 9,23,56,102 2 96 3 206 9,23,56,102,96,206
Pin Nematode Resistance (Criconemella Xenoplax)    
Root lesion nematode resistance (Pratylenchus spp.) 4 9,30,97,102 3 96 9,30,97,102,96
Rootknot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne spp.) 1 3,18,24,96,98 3 9 2 19,26,30,102 3,18,24,96,98,9,19,26,30,102
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. arenaria) - aggressive    
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. javanica) - 'standard' population 5 160 4 161 160,161
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. incognita)    
Phylloxera resistance 4 3,9,23,36,53,57,69,98,102,166,206,207 5 17,23 3 19 3,9,23,36,53,57,69,98,102,166,206,207,17,23,19
Phylloxera resistance on leaves (ie tolerance to phylloxera leaf galls)    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 1 5 165,210 165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 4 5 165,210 165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 7 3 165 4 210 165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 19 3 165 4 210 165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 20 3 165 4 210 165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 30 3 165 4 210 165,210
Ease of bench grafting 4 3,32,57,103 2 52 3,32,57,103,52
Ease of rooting 4 3,57,103,166 3 52 5 102 3,57,103,166,52,102
Affinity with V. vinifera 3 26 4 32,207 2 36,52 26,32,207,36,52
Tolerance to saline soils 1 3,18,19,23,57,96,98,102,206,207,208 2 68 3,18,19,23,57,96,98,102,206,207,208,68,96
Salt Tolerance Index    
Tolerance to soil acidity 1 18,23,56,98 2 19 3 96 4 74 18,23,56,98,19,96,74
Tolerance to waterlogging 1 3,18,24,103,208 2 19,68 4 26,36,205 3 52,56,74,207 3,18,24,103,208,19,68,26,36,205,52,56,74,207
Lime tolerance (% = active lime). Lime-induced chlorosis = iron chlorosis 1 56,84,88,94,98,166,196 3 3,18,19,57,96,102 11% 32,36,52,68,73,96,98 2 73,156,206 4 74,207 56,84,88,94,98,166,196,3,18,19,57,96,102,32,36,52,68,73,96,98,73,156,206,74,207
Other Characteristics Recommended for varieties with poor set 56,57,98 56,57,98
Information SARDI long term rootstock trial 208 observed high mortality and constrained vigour at Langhorne Creek with Cabernet Sauvignon. Walker et al 122 noted 3309 is very poor salt excluder. 122,208
*Notes Effects on maturity: A = Advance; D = Delay
Vegetative cycle: L = Long; VL = Very Long; M = Medium; S = Short
 

Phylloxera information

As a risk management option, rootstocks can be used to reduce susceptibility of a vineyard to grape phylloxera, compared to the use of own-rooted Vitis vinifera, which is classified as field susceptible. There are currently 83 genetic strains of phylloxera in Australia. The ability of rootstocks to withstand phylloxera may vary depending on the strain or strains of phylloxera in the vineyard. Seven genetic strains, G1, G4, G7, G19, G20, G30 and G38 are currently maintained and used for rootstock screening. G1 and G4 have higher reproductive capabilities and predominate in Phylloxera Infested Zones (PIZs). Depending on the strain, rootstocks may be field susceptible, tolerant or resistant. The available information from field testing is shown for each rootstock. However, not all rootstocks have been field-tested against each of the main phylloxera strains. Only those tested are shown with a colour code. General rootstock rankings of susceptibility, tolerance or resistance to phylloxera have also been obtained from published international literature and are presented using the same ranking system.

Field susceptible rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera breeds freely and the vine is unable to withstand infestation.

Field tolerant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera can feed, reproduce and cause root galling, but to a lesser extent than on own-rooted grapevines.

Field resistant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera cannot develop beyond the first instar to the adult stage and cannot therefore lay eggs. Feeding does not result in root galling.

G1 G4 G7 G19 G20 G30 G38 General Ranking
Susceptible
Tolerant
Resistant
Not tested
See the distribution of the main phylloxera strains in Australia

41B

Climate Cool [No Reference] Warm [No Reference] Hot [No Reference]
Vineyard Characteristics Rootstock Attributes *Weighted average rating
Irrigation water availability Drought tolerance 2.96
Overall vineyard vigour Vigour conferred by rootstock to scion 2.56
Soil salinity Tolerance to saline soil 1.72
Soil drainage Tolerance to waterlogging 1
Soil pH Tolerance to soil acidity  
Soil pH Tolerance to soil lime 4.05
Occurrence of Nematodes Resistance to Root Knot Nematodes 3

*1 = low, 2 = low to moderate, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high

For reference information on these and all other rootstock attributes click on ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ below.

Notes:

  • Supply of this rootstock in Australia can be very limited so consult your nursery.

No information available for:

  • Rootstock tolerance to soil acidity
Resistance to crown gall (Agrobacterium)    
Resistance to Cylindrocarpon sp.    
Resistance to Fusarium sp.    
Resistance to Phytophthora sp.    
Resistance to Pythium sp.    
Resistance to Rhizoctonia sp.    
Resistance to Downy Mildew Plasmopara viticola    
Resistance to Esca    
Resistance to Botryosphaeriaceae species    
Drought tolerance 3 26,47,52,73,103,143 1 73 4 73,94 2-4 140,142 1-4 206 26,47,52,73,103,143,73,73,94,140,142,206
Tendency to K+ deficiency (potassium absorption) 4 24 24
Scion grape juice pH    
Scion grape juice TA 4 66 66
Scion grape juice Phenolics    
Scion grape juice Anthocyanins    
Scion grape juice chloride    
Scion grape juice sodium    
Scion grape juice Phosphorus    
Scion grape juice Nitrogen    
Scion grape juice Potassium    
Tendency to Mg-deficiency 1 24 4 157 24,157
Nitrogen Uptake    
Effects on maturity (dependant on crop load) *A 103 103
Yield 4 66,93,189 2 154 66,93,189,154
Rooting depth 5 206 206
Vegetative Cycle *S 23,52 23,52
Vigour conferred to scion (dependant on vine management and best practise viticulture) 3 23 3-4 24,142 2 26,52,103,197 1 36 4 66 23,24,142,26,52,103,197,36,66
Improves fruit set (&/or fertility) 4 154,189 2 132 154,189,132
Nematode Resistance 1 36,52 1 103 36,52,103
Citrus nematode resistance (Tylenchulus semipenetrans)    
Dagger nematode resistance (Xiphinema index)    
Pin Nematode Resistance (Criconemella Xenoplax)    
Root lesion nematode resistance (Pratylenchus spp.)    
Rootknot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne spp.) 1 24 24
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. arenaria) - aggressive    
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. javanica) - 'standard' population 5 117,160 117,160
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. incognita) 1 160 160
Phylloxera resistance 1 3 4 23,206 5 103 3,23,206,103
Phylloxera resistance on leaves (ie tolerance to phylloxera leaf galls)    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 1    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 4    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 7    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 19    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 20    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 30    
Ease of bench grafting 2 52 1 103 52,103
Ease of rooting 1 52,103 2 146 52,103,146
Affinity with V. vinifera 4 26,32 2 36 3 52 26,32,36,52
Tolerance to saline soils 1 23,26,89,206 4 71 1&4 144 3 197 23,26,89,206,71,144,197
Salt Tolerance Index    
Tolerance to soil acidity    
Tolerance to waterlogging 1 12,24,26,52,103 12,24,26,52,103
Lime tolerance (% = active lime). Lime-induced chlorosis = iron chlorosis 4 73,74,84,157 40% 32,36,52,73 5 32,103,206 37% 36 3 73,94 3-4 156 73,74,84,157,32,36,52,73,32,103,206,36,73,94,156
Other Characteristics    
Information    
*Notes Effects on maturity: A = Advance; D = Delay
Vegetative cycle: L = Long; VL = Very Long; M = Medium; S = Short
 

Phylloxera information

As a risk management option, rootstocks can be used to reduce susceptibility of a vineyard to grape phylloxera, compared to the use of own-rooted Vitis vinifera, which is classified as field susceptible. There are currently 83 genetic strains of phylloxera in Australia. The ability of rootstocks to withstand phylloxera may vary depending on the strain or strains of phylloxera in the vineyard. Seven genetic strains, G1, G4, G7, G19, G20, G30 and G38 are currently maintained and used for rootstock screening. G1 and G4 have higher reproductive capabilities and predominate in Phylloxera Infested Zones (PIZs). Depending on the strain, rootstocks may be field susceptible, tolerant or resistant. The available information from field testing is shown for each rootstock. However, not all rootstocks have been field-tested against each of the main phylloxera strains. Only those tested are shown with a colour code. General rootstock rankings of susceptibility, tolerance or resistance to phylloxera have also been obtained from published international literature and are presented using the same ranking system.

Field susceptible rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera breeds freely and the vine is unable to withstand infestation.

Field tolerant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera can feed, reproduce and cause root galling, but to a lesser extent than on own-rooted grapevines.

Field resistant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera cannot develop beyond the first instar to the adult stage and cannot therefore lay eggs. Feeding does not result in root galling.

G1 G4 G7 G19 G20 G30 G38 General Ranking
Susceptible
Tolerant
Resistant
Not tested
See the distribution of the main phylloxera strains in Australia

420A

Climate Cool [No Reference] Warm [No Reference] Hot [No Reference]
Vineyard Characteristics Rootstock Attributes *Weighted average rating
Irrigation water availability Drought tolerance 2.06
Overall vineyard vigour Vigour conferred by rootstock to scion 1.9
Soil salinity Tolerance to saline soil 1
Soil drainage Tolerance to waterlogging 1.79
Soil pH Tolerance to soil acidity 2
Soil pH Tolerance to soil lime 3.17
Occurrence of Nematodes Resistance to Root Knot Nematodes 3.63

*1 = low, 2 = low to moderate, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high

For reference information on these and all other rootstock attributes click on ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ below.

Notes:

  • Performs well with Carignan 32
  • Supply of this rootstock in Australia can be limited so consult your nursery.
  • Limited information is available on tolerance to soil salinity.

Poor affinity with: Sangiovese3.

Incompatible with: Chardonnay, Cabernet Franc, Malbec, Merlot, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Noir and Sauvignon Blanc3,10, Italian Riesling, Raboso Piave, Romeiko, Sangiovese, Trebbiano10, Zante Currant10,23 and Servan32

Resistance to crown gall (Agrobacterium)    
Resistance to Cylindrocarpon sp.    
Resistance to Fusarium sp.    
Resistance to Phytophthora sp. 1 3,57,96,98 3 207 3,57,96,98,207
Resistance to Pythium sp.    
Resistance to Rhizoctonia sp.    
Resistance to Downy Mildew Plasmopara viticola    
Resistance to Esca    
Resistance to Botryosphaeriaceae species    
Drought tolerance 1 3,23,26,36,57,96,98,114 3 24,47,73,103,166,199 2 52,56,68,102,140,143 4 73,207 1-2 142 1-3 206 3,23,26,36,57,96,98,114 3 24,47,73,103,166,199,52,56,68,102,140,143,73,207,142,206
Tendency to K+ deficiency (potassium absorption) 4 3,56,57,58,98 3,56,57,58,98
Scion grape juice pH 4 62 1 57 3 119,169 2 171 62,57,119,169,171
Scion grape juice TA 1 119 4 171 119,171
Scion grape juice Phenolics    
Scion grape juice Anthocyanins 1 133 133
Scion grape juice chloride 3 119 119
Scion grape juice sodium 3 119,171 119,171
Scion grape juice Phosphorus 2 171 171
Scion grape juice Nitrogen    
Scion grape juice Potassium 1 68,96,133 3 169 2 171 68,96,133,169,171
Tendency to Mg-deficiency    
Nitrogen Uptake 4 56 56
Effects on maturity (dependant on crop load) *A 32,74,96,103 32,74,96,103
Yield 1 68 2 57,96,119,154,180 3 171 68,57,96,119,154,180,171
Rooting depth 1 3,23 3,23
Vegetative Cycle *L 3,52,57,96,98 *M 56 3,52,57,96,98,56
Vigour conferred to scion (dependant on vine management and best practise viticulture) 2 3,26,52,57,96,102,103,158 1 15,23,32,36,68,98,180 3 24,56 3-4 142,166 4 207 3,26,52,57,96,102,103,158,15,23,32,36,68,98,180,24,56,142,166,207
Improves fruit set (&/or fertility) 4 3,10,96,98 3 154 3,10,96,98,154
Nematode Resistance 2 52 3 57,98,103 52,57,98,103
Citrus nematode resistance (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) 1 96 2 207 96,207
Dagger nematode resistance (Xiphinema index) 1 9,15,96,102 9,15,96,102
Pin Nematode Resistance (Criconemella Xenoplax)    
Root lesion nematode resistance (Pratylenchus spp.) 1 9,15,96,102 2 30 3 97 9,15,96,102,30,97
Rootknot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne spp.) 3 3,15,24,96,102 4 9 2 30 3-4 206 3,15,24,96,102,9,30,206
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. arenaria) - aggressive    
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. javanica) - 'standard' population 5 114,117,160 4 194 114,117,160,194
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. incognita) 1&5 160 5 194 160,194
Phylloxera resistance 4 3,15,36,57,98,102,104,166,206 1-4 9 3 26 2 207 3,15,36,57,98,102,104,166,206,9,26,207
Phylloxera resistance on leaves (ie tolerance to phylloxera leaf galls)    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 1 3 165 4-5 210 165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 4 5 113,165,210 113,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 7 5 165,210 165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 19 3 165 4 210 165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 20 3 165 4-5 210 165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 30 5 113,165,210 113,165,210
Ease of bench grafting 1 3,32,57 2 52 4 98 3 103 1&4 166 3,32,57,52,98,103,166
Ease of rooting 1 3,26,32,57,98 2 52 3 102,103,146 1&4 166 3,26,32,57,98,52,102,103,146,166
Affinity with V. vinifera 4 26,32,207 3 36 2 52 1 57 26,32,207,36,52,57
Tolerance to saline soils 1 15,23,26,68,96,98,206,207 15,23,26,68,96,98,206,207
Salt Tolerance Index    
Tolerance to soil acidity 2 56 56
Tolerance to waterlogging 1 3,24,57,96,98,102 3 12,26,103,207 1 15 2 52,56,68 3,24,57,96,98,102,12,26,103,207,15,52,56,68
Lime tolerance (% = active lime). Lime-induced chlorosis = iron chlorosis 4 3,57,73,96,98 20% 32,36,52,68,73,96,98 3 15,56,73,102,166 21% 32 2 206 1 207 3,57,73,96,98,32,36,52,68,73,96,98,15,56,73,102,166,32,206,207
Other Characteristics Behaves particularly well with Carignan 32 32
Information    
*Notes Effects on maturity: A = Advance; D = Delay
Vegetative cycle: L = Long; VL = Very Long; M = Medium; S = Short
 

Phylloxera information

As a risk management option, rootstocks can be used to reduce susceptibility of a vineyard to grape phylloxera, compared to the use of own-rooted Vitis vinifera, which is classified as field susceptible. There are currently 83 genetic strains of phylloxera in Australia. The ability of rootstocks to withstand phylloxera may vary depending on the strain or strains of phylloxera in the vineyard. Seven genetic strains, G1, G4, G7, G19, G20, G30 and G38 are currently maintained and used for rootstock screening. G1 and G4 have higher reproductive capabilities and predominate in Phylloxera Infested Zones (PIZs). Depending on the strain, rootstocks may be field susceptible, tolerant or resistant. The available information from field testing is shown for each rootstock. However, not all rootstocks have been field-tested against each of the main phylloxera strains. Only those tested are shown with a colour code. General rootstock rankings of susceptibility, tolerance or resistance to phylloxera have also been obtained from published international literature and are presented using the same ranking system.

Field susceptible rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera breeds freely and the vine is unable to withstand infestation.

Field tolerant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera can feed, reproduce and cause root galling, but to a lesser extent than on own-rooted grapevines.

Field resistant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera cannot develop beyond the first instar to the adult stage and cannot therefore lay eggs. Feeding does not result in root galling.

G1 G4 G7 G19 G20 G30 G38 General Ranking
Susceptible
Tolerant
Resistant
Not tested
See the distribution of the main phylloxera strains in Australia

Börner

Climate Cool [No Reference] Warm [No Reference] Hot [No Reference]
Vineyard Characteristics Rootstock Attributes *Weighted average rating
Irrigation water availability Drought tolerance 4
Overall vineyard vigour Vigour conferred by rootstock to scion 3
Soil salinity Tolerance to saline soil  
Soil drainage Tolerance to waterlogging  
Soil pH Tolerance to soil acidity  
Soil pH Tolerance to soil lime 1.75
Occurrence of Nematodes Resistance to Root Knot Nematodes 3.5

*1 = low, 2 = low to moderate, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high

For reference information on these and all other rootstock attributes click on ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ below.

Notes:

  • Tolerance to soil salinity is unknown for this rootstock. If your site has soil salinity issues, you should consider another rootstock with proven soil salinity tolerance.
  • Poor adaptation to extremely calcareous soils 96.
  • Suffers from iron chlorosis under wet conditions 96.
  • Limited information is available on tolerance to Root Knot Nematodes
  • Supply of this rootstock in Australia can be limited so consult your nursery.

No information available for:

  • Rootstock tolerance to saline soils
  • Tolerance to waterlogged soils
  • Rootstock tolerance to soil acidity
Resistance to crown gall (Agrobacterium)    
Resistance to Cylindrocarpon sp.    
Resistance to Fusarium sp.    
Resistance to Phytophthora sp.    
Resistance to Pythium sp.    
Resistance to Rhizoctonia sp.    
Resistance to Downy Mildew Plasmopara viticola 5 203 203
Resistance to Esca    
Resistance to Botryosphaeriaceae species    
Drought tolerance 4 73,94,206 73,94,206
Tendency to K+ deficiency (potassium absorption)    
Scion grape juice pH    
Scion grape juice TA    
Scion grape juice Phenolics    
Scion grape juice Anthocyanins    
Scion grape juice chloride    
Scion grape juice sodium  1 63 63
Scion grape juice Phosphorus    
Scion grape juice Nitrogen    
Scion grape juice Potassium    
Tendency to Mg-deficiency    
Nitrogen Uptake    
Effects on maturity (dependant on crop load)    
Yield 4-3 96 5 188 96,188
Rooting depth    
Vegetative Cycle    
Vigour conferred to scion (dependant on vine management and best practise viticulture) 4 96 2 188 96,188
Improves fruit set (&/or fertility)   96
Nematode Resistance 4 96  
Citrus nematode resistance (Tylenchulus semipenetrans)    
Dagger nematode resistance (Xiphinema index) 5 97 4 206 97,206
Pin Nematode Resistance (Criconemella Xenoplax)    
Root lesion nematode resistance (Pratylenchus spp.)    
Rootknot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne spp.) 3-4 206 206
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. arenaria) - aggressive    
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. javanica) - 'standard' population    
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. incognita)    
Phylloxera resistance 4 44,167 5 96,97,206 44,167,96,97,206
Phylloxera resistance on leaves (ie tolerance to phylloxera leaf galls)    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 1 4 51,113 5 165,210 51,113,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 4 4 51,113 5 165,210 51,113,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 7 4 51 5 165 4-5 210 51,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 19 4 51 5 113,165 4-5 210 51,113,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 20 4 51 5 165,210 51,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 30 4 51 5 165 4-5 210 51,165,210
Ease of bench grafting    
Ease of rooting 2 96 5 188 96,188
Affinity with V. vinifera 4 44 3 188 44,188
Tolerance to saline soils    
Salt Tolerance Index    
Tolerance to soil acidity    
Tolerance to waterlogging    
Lime tolerance (% = active lime). Lime-induced chlorosis = iron chlorosis 1 73,96 3 73 2 94 73,96,73,94
Other Characteristics Poor adaptation to extremely calcareous soils 96. Suffers from iron chlorosis under wet conditions 96 96
Information    

Phylloxera information

As a risk management option, rootstocks can be used to reduce susceptibility of a vineyard to grape phylloxera, compared to the use of own-rooted Vitis vinifera, which is classified as field susceptible. There are currently 83 genetic strains of phylloxera in Australia. The ability of rootstocks to withstand phylloxera may vary depending on the strain or strains of phylloxera in the vineyard. Seven genetic strains, G1, G4, G7, G19, G20, G30 and G38 are currently maintained and used for rootstock screening. G1 and G4 have higher reproductive capabilities and predominate in Phylloxera Infested Zones (PIZs). Depending on the strain, rootstocks may be field susceptible, tolerant or resistant. The available information from field testing is shown for each rootstock. However, not all rootstocks have been field-tested against each of the main phylloxera strains. Only those tested are shown with a colour code. General rootstock rankings of susceptibility, tolerance or resistance to phylloxera have also been obtained from published international literature and are presented using the same ranking system.

Field susceptible rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera breeds freely and the vine is unable to withstand infestation.

Field tolerant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera can feed, reproduce and cause root galling, but to a lesser extent than on own-rooted grapevines.

Field resistant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera cannot develop beyond the first instar to the adult stage and cannot therefore lay eggs. Feeding does not result in root galling.

G1 G4 G7 G19 G20 G30 G38 General Ranking
Susceptible
Tolerant
Resistant
Not tested
See the distribution of the main phylloxera strains in Australia

Dog Ridge

Climate Cool [No Reference] Warm [No Reference] Hot [No Reference]
Vineyard Characteristics Rootstock Attributes *Weighted average rating
Irrigation water availability Drought tolerance 2.56
Overall vineyard vigour Vigour conferred by rootstock to scion 4.5
Soil salinity Tolerance to saline soil 3.8
Soil drainage Tolerance to waterlogging 4
Soil pH Tolerance to soil acidity  
Soil pH Tolerance to soil lime 2.2
Occurrence of Nematodes Resistance to Root Knot Nematodes 4.5

*1 = low, 2 = low to moderate, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high

For reference information on these and all other rootstock attributes click on ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ below.

Notes:

  • Because of its high vigour, scions frequently show symptoms of zinc deficiency 37
  • Limited information is available on tolerance to waterlogging
  • Supply of this rootstock in Australia can be limited so consult your nursery.

No information available for:

  • Rootstock tolerance to soil acidity
Resistance to crown gall (Agrobacterium)    
Resistance to Cylindrocarpon sp.    
Resistance to Fusarium sp.    
Resistance to Phytophthora sp.    
Resistance to Pythium sp.    
Resistance to Rhizoctonia sp.    
Resistance to Downy Mildew Plasmopara viticola    
Resistance to Esca    
Resistance to Botryosphaeriaceae species    
Drought tolerance 3 23,104 1 23,26 4 141,205 2 142 1-4 206 23,104,23,26,141,205,142,206
Tendency to K+ deficiency (potassium absorption) 2 30 30
Scion grape juice pH 4 15,30,61,64,74,95,128,141,171 5 126 15,30,61,64,74,95,128,141,171,126
Scion grape juice TA 4 30,171 5 126 30,171,126
Scion grape juice Phenolics 1 126 126
Scion grape juice Anthocyanins 2 126,141 126,141
Scion grape juice chloride 4 122 3-4 63 122,63
Scion grape juice sodium 4 61,171 2 126 5 63 61,171,126,63
Scion grape juice Phosphorus 3-4 126 4 171 126,171
Scion grape juice Nitrogen    
Scion grape juice Potassium 4 15,58,61,64,128 5 126,141 3 171 15,58,61,64,128,126,141,171
Tendency to Mg-deficiency    
Nitrogen Uptake 5 126 126
Effects on maturity (dependant on crop load) *A 103 103
Yield 4 125,128,171 2 180 1 181 3 141 125,128,171,180,181,141
Rooting depth    
Vegetative Cycle    
Vigour conferred to scion (dependant on vine management and best practise viticulture) 4 26,37,65,74,103,112,128,193 5 31,37,54,102,104,125,142,180 26,37,65,74,103,112,128,193,31,37,54,102,104,125,142,180
Improves fruit set (&/or fertility)    
Nematode Resistance 4 36,37,74,103 5 80 6,37,74,103,80
Citrus nematode resistance (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) 4 23,97 3 54 23,97,54
Dagger nematode resistance (Xiphinema index) 1 9,102,206 4 104 9,102,206,104
Pin Nematode Resistance (Criconemella Xenoplax)    
Root lesion nematode resistance (Pratylenchus spp.) 4 9,54,102,104 3 30 9,54,102,104,30
Rootknot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne spp.) 4 9,23,26,30,97,102,104 5 206 9,23,26,30,97,102,104,206
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. arenaria) - aggressive 5 97 97
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. javanica) - 'standard' population 5 114,117,160,173 114,117,160,173
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. incognita) 5 160 160
Phylloxera resistance 4 9,74 3 23,26,31,37,102,104,166 2&4 206 9,74,23,26,31,37,102,104,166,206
Phylloxera resistance on leaves (ie tolerance to phylloxera leaf galls) 3 104 104
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 1    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 4    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 7    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 19    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 20    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 30    
Ease of bench grafting 4 37 37
Ease of rooting 1 26,37,54,102,103,104 26,37,54,102,103,104
Affinity with V. vinifera    
Tolerance to saline soils 3 23 4 26,74,206 3-5 205 23,26,74,206,205
Salt Tolerance Index    
Tolerance to soil acidity    
Tolerance to waterlogging 4 26 26
Lime tolerance (% = active lime). Lime-induced chlorosis = iron chlorosis 1 9,27 3 53,102,104 9,27,53,102,104
Other Characteristics Because of its high vigour, scions frequently show symptoms of zinc deficiency 37 37
Information    
*Notes Effects on maturity: A = Advance; D = Delay
Vegetative cycle: L = Long; VL = Very Long; M = Medium; S = Short
 

Phylloxera information

As a risk management option, rootstocks can be used to reduce susceptibility of a vineyard to grape phylloxera, compared to the use of own-rooted Vitis vinifera, which is classified as field susceptible. There are currently 83 genetic strains of phylloxera in Australia. The ability of rootstocks to withstand phylloxera may vary depending on the strain or strains of phylloxera in the vineyard. Seven genetic strains, G1, G4, G7, G19, G20, G30 and G38 are currently maintained and used for rootstock screening. G1 and G4 have higher reproductive capabilities and predominate in Phylloxera Infested Zones (PIZs). Depending on the strain, rootstocks may be field susceptible, tolerant or resistant. The available information from field testing is shown for each rootstock. However, not all rootstocks have been field-tested against each of the main phylloxera strains. Only those tested are shown with a colour code. General rootstock rankings of susceptibility, tolerance or resistance to phylloxera have also been obtained from published international literature and are presented using the same ranking system.

Field susceptible rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera breeds freely and the vine is unable to withstand infestation.

Field tolerant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera can feed, reproduce and cause root galling, but to a lesser extent than on own-rooted grapevines.

Field resistant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera cannot develop beyond the first instar to the adult stage and cannot therefore lay eggs. Feeding does not result in root galling.

G1 G4 G7 G19 G20 G30 G38 General Ranking
Susceptible
Tolerant
Resistant
Not tested
See the distribution of the main phylloxera strains in Australia

Fercal

Climate Cool [No Reference] Warm [No Reference] Hot [No Reference]
Vineyard Characteristics Rootstock Attributes *Weighted average rating
Irrigation water availability Drought tolerance 2.67
Overall vineyard vigour Vigour conferred by rootstock to scion 3.42
Soil salinity Tolerance to saline soil 4
Soil drainage Tolerance to waterlogging  
Soil pH Tolerance to soil acidity 4
Soil pH Tolerance to soil lime 4.13
Occurrence of Nematodes Resistance to Root Knot Nematodes 4.14

*1 = low, 2 = low to moderate, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high

For reference information on these and all other rootstock attributes click on ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ below.

Notes:

  • Limited information is available on tolerance to soil salinity and soil acidity. If your site has soil salinity issues, you may wish to consider another rootstock which has proven soil salinity tolerance. The same applies for soil acidity.
  • Supply of this rootstock in Australia can be very limited so consult your nursery.

No information available for:

  • Tolerance to waterlogged soils
Resistance to crown gall (Agrobacterium)    
Resistance to Cylindrocarpon sp.    
Resistance to Fusarium sp.    
Resistance to Phytophthora sp.    
Resistance to Pythium sp.    
Resistance to Rhizoctonia sp.    
Resistance to Downy Mildew Plasmopara viticola    
Resistance to Esca    
Resistance to Botryosphaeriaceae species    
Drought tolerance 3 47,73,206 2 73 2-3 140,142 47,73,206,73,140,142
Tendency to K+ deficiency (potassium absorption) 2 204 204
Scion grape juice pH 1 33,119 3 171 33,119,171
Scion grape juice TA 4 33,171 1 119 33,171,119
Scion grape juice Phenolics 4 33 33
Scion grape juice Anthocyanins    
Scion grape juice chloride 3 33 33
Scion grape juice sodium 3 33 2 171 33,171
Scion grape juice Phosphorus 3 171 171
Scion grape juice Nitrogen    
Scion grape juice Potassium 1 33 3 171 33,171
Tendency to Mg-deficiency 3 204 204
Nitrogen Uptake    
Effects on maturity (dependant on crop load) *A 33,42 33,42
Yield 3 119,180 4 171 119,180,171
Rooting depth    
Vegetative Cycle    
Vigour conferred to scion (dependant on vine management and best practise viticulture) 3 35,42,102 3-4 142 4 180,184 35,42,102,142,180,184
Improves fruit set (&/or fertility)    
Nematode Resistance    
Citrus nematode resistance (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) 4 33 33
Dagger nematode resistance (Xiphinema index)    
Pin Nematode Resistance (Criconemella Xenoplax) 4 33 3 33 33
Root lesion nematode resistance (Pratylenchus spp.)    
Rootknot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne spp.) 4 33 3 33 2 102 33,102
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. arenaria) - aggressive    
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. javanica) - 'standard' population 5 114,117,160 114,117,160
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. incognita) 5 160 160
Phylloxera resistance 4 104,206 104,206
Phylloxera resistance on leaves (ie tolerance to phylloxera leaf galls)    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 1    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 4    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 7    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 19    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 20    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 30    
Ease of bench grafting    
Ease of rooting 5 42 42
Affinity with V. vinifera 5 42 42
Tolerance to saline soils 4 114 114
Salt Tolerance Index    
Tolerance to soil acidity 4 204 204
Tolerance to waterlogging    
Lime tolerance (% = active lime). Lime-induced chlorosis = iron chlorosis 4 35,57,74,102,156 5 42,73 3 73 35,57,74,102,156,42,73,73
Other Characteristics    
Information    
*Notes Effects on maturity: A = Advance; D = Delay
Vegetative cycle: L = Long; VL = Very Long; M = Medium; S = Short
 

Phylloxera information

As a risk management option, rootstocks can be used to reduce susceptibility of a vineyard to grape phylloxera, compared to the use of own-rooted Vitis vinifera, which is classified as field susceptible. There are currently 83 genetic strains of phylloxera in Australia. The ability of rootstocks to withstand phylloxera may vary depending on the strain or strains of phylloxera in the vineyard. Seven genetic strains, G1, G4, G7, G19, G20, G30 and G38 are currently maintained and used for rootstock screening. G1 and G4 have higher reproductive capabilities and predominate in Phylloxera Infested Zones (PIZs). Depending on the strain, rootstocks may be field susceptible, tolerant or resistant. The available information from field testing is shown for each rootstock. However, not all rootstocks have been field-tested against each of the main phylloxera strains. Only those tested are shown with a colour code. General rootstock rankings of susceptibility, tolerance or resistance to phylloxera have also been obtained from published international literature and are presented using the same ranking system.

Field susceptible rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera breeds freely and the vine is unable to withstand infestation.

Field tolerant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera can feed, reproduce and cause root galling, but to a lesser extent than on own-rooted grapevines.

Field resistant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera cannot develop beyond the first instar to the adult stage and cannot therefore lay eggs. Feeding does not result in root galling.

G1 G4 G7 G19 G20 G30 G38 General Ranking
Susceptible
Tolerant
Resistant
Not tested
See the distribution of the main phylloxera strains in Australia

Freedom

Climate Cool [No Reference] Warm [No Reference] Hot [No Reference]
Vineyard Characteristics Rootstock Attributes *Weighted average rating
Irrigation water availability Drought tolerance 3.25
Overall vineyard vigour Vigour conferred by rootstock to scion 3.44
Soil salinity Tolerance to saline soil 2
Soil drainage Tolerance to waterlogging 2.5
Soil pH Tolerance to soil acidity  
Soil pH Tolerance to soil lime 3
Occurrence of Nematodes Resistance to Root Knot Nematodes 4.29

*1 = low, 2 = low to moderate, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high

For reference information on these and all other rootstock attributes click on ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ below.

Notes:

  • Supply of this rootstock in Australia can be limited so consult your nursery.

Incompatible with: Malta Seedless, Merbein Seedless, Sultana10

No information available for:

  • Rootstock tolerance to soil acidity
Resistance to crown gall (Agrobacterium) 4 4,19,23,26 4,19,23,26
Resistance to Cylindrocarpon sp.    
Resistance to Fusarium sp.    
Resistance to Phytophthora sp.    
Resistance to Pythium sp.    
Resistance to Rhizoctonia sp.    
Resistance to Downy Mildew Plasmopara viticola    
Resistance to Esca    
Resistance to Botryosphaeriaceae species    
Drought tolerance 3-4 68 3 206 68,206
Tendency to K+ deficiency (potassium absorption) 4 23 23
Scion grape juice pH 4 15,57,61,62,64,74,95 1 119 5 126 15,57,61,62,64,74,95,119,126
Scion grape juice TA 3 119,126 119,126
Scion grape juice Phenolics 1 126 126
Scion grape juice Anthocyanins 2 126 126
Scion grape juice chloride 3 122 122
Scion grape juice sodium 4 61 2 126 61,126
Scion grape juice Phosphorus 3-4 126 126
Scion grape juice Nitrogen    
Scion grape juice Potassium 4 15,57,61 5 64,126 15,57,61,64,126
Tendency to Mg-deficiency    
Nitrogen Uptake 3 126 126
Effects on maturity (dependant on crop load) *A 4 4
Yield 1 59,81,119 4 68,175 2 125 59,81,119,68,175,125
Rooting depth    
Vegetative Cycle    
Vigour conferred to scion (dependant on vine management and best practise viticulture) 2-4 4 3 15,23,102 3-4 19 4 68,104,125 4,15,23,102,19,68,104,125
Improves fruit set (&/or fertility)    
Nematode Resistance    
Citrus nematode resistance (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) 4 23 23
Dagger nematode resistance (Xiphinema index) 4 9,15,23,102,206 2 104 9,15,23,102,206,104
Pin Nematode Resistance (Criconemella Xenoplax)    
Root lesion nematode resistance (Pratylenchus spp.)    
Rootknot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne spp.) 4 4,9,15,19,23,26,97,102,104,206 4,9,15,19,23,26,97,102,104,206
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. arenaria) - aggressive    
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. javanica) - 'standard' population 5 114,117,160 114,117,160
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. incognita) 5 160 160
Phylloxera resistance 4 4,9,15,23,102,104 3 19,25 3-4 206 4,9,15,23,102,104,19,25,206
Phylloxera resistance on leaves (ie tolerance to phylloxera leaf galls)    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 1    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 4    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 7    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 19    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 20    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 30    
Ease of bench grafting 2 200 200
Ease of rooting 5 102 102
Affinity with V. vinifera 3 200 200
Tolerance to saline soils 2 4,19,68 4,19,68
Salt Tolerance Index    
Tolerance to soil acidity    
Tolerance to waterlogging 1 68 4 183 68,183
Lime tolerance (% = active lime). Lime-induced chlorosis = iron chlorosis 3 68 68
Other Characteristics    
Information    
*Notes Effects on maturity: A = Advance; D = Delay
Vegetative cycle: L = Long; VL = Very Long; M = Medium; S = Short
 

Phylloxera information

As a risk management option, rootstocks can be used to reduce susceptibility of a vineyard to grape phylloxera, compared to the use of own-rooted Vitis vinifera, which is classified as field susceptible. There are currently 83 genetic strains of phylloxera in Australia. The ability of rootstocks to withstand phylloxera may vary depending on the strain or strains of phylloxera in the vineyard. Seven genetic strains, G1, G4, G7, G19, G20, G30 and G38 are currently maintained and used for rootstock screening. G1 and G4 have higher reproductive capabilities and predominate in Phylloxera Infested Zones (PIZs). Depending on the strain, rootstocks may be field susceptible, tolerant or resistant. The available information from field testing is shown for each rootstock. However, not all rootstocks have been field-tested against each of the main phylloxera strains. Only those tested are shown with a colour code. General rootstock rankings of susceptibility, tolerance or resistance to phylloxera have also been obtained from published international literature and are presented using the same ranking system.

Field susceptible rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera breeds freely and the vine is unable to withstand infestation.

Field tolerant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera can feed, reproduce and cause root galling, but to a lesser extent than on own-rooted grapevines.

Field resistant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera cannot develop beyond the first instar to the adult stage and cannot therefore lay eggs. Feeding does not result in root galling.

G1 G4 G7 G19 G20 G30 G38 General Ranking
Susceptible
Tolerant
Resistant
Not tested
See the distribution of the main phylloxera strains in Australia

Gravesac

Climate Cool [No Reference] Warm [No Reference] Hot [No Reference]
Vineyard Characteristics Rootstock Attributes *Weighted average rating
Irrigation water availability Drought tolerance 2.8
Overall vineyard vigour Vigour conferred by rootstock to scion 3.08
Soil salinity Tolerance to saline soil  
Soil drainage Tolerance to waterlogging 3
Soil pH Tolerance to soil acidity 4
Soil pH Tolerance to soil lime 3
Occurrence of Nematodes Resistance to Root Knot Nematodes 1

*1 = low, 2 = low to moderate, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high

For reference information on these and all other rootstock attributes click on ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ below.

Notes:

  • Tolerance to soil salinity is unknown for this rootstock. If your site has soil salinity issues, you should consider another rootstock with proven soil salinity tolerance.
  • Limited information is available on tolerance to Root Knot Nematodes
  • Supply of this rootstock in Australia can be very limited so consult your nursery.

No information available for:

  • Rootstock tolerance to saline soils
Resistance to crown gall (Agrobacterium)    
Resistance to Cylindrocarpon sp.    
Resistance to Fusarium sp.    
Resistance to Phytophthora sp.    
Resistance to Pythium sp.    
Resistance to Rhizoctonia sp.    
Resistance to Downy Mildew Plasmopara viticola    
Resistance to Esca    
Resistance to Botryosphaeriaceae species    
Drought tolerance 3 24,73,206 1 56 4 73 24,73,206,56,73
Tendency to K+ deficiency (potassium absorption)    
Scion grape juice pH 4 171 171
Scion grape juice TA 3 171 171
Scion grape juice Phenolics    
Scion grape juice Anthocyanins    
Scion grape juice chloride    
Scion grape juice sodium 2 171 171
Scion grape juice Phosphorus 4 171 171
Scion grape juice Nitrogen    
Scion grape juice Potassium 3 171 171
Tendency to Mg-deficiency    
Nitrogen Uptake 2 56 56
Effects on maturity (dependant on crop load) *A 56,96 56,96
Yield 2 180 4 171 180,171
Rooting depth    
Vegetative Cycle *M 56 56
Vigour conferred to scion (dependant on vine management and best practise viticulture) 3 24,27,35 2 56 3-4 96 4 114 24,27,35,56,96,114
Improves fruit set (&/or fertility)    
Nematode Resistance    
Citrus nematode resistance (Tylenchulus semipenetrans)    
Dagger nematode resistance (Xiphinema index)    
Pin Nematode Resistance (Criconemella Xenoplax)    
Root lesion nematode resistance (Pratylenchus spp.)    
Rootknot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne spp.) 1 24 24
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. arenaria) - aggressive    
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. javanica) - 'standard' population    
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. incognita)    
Phylloxera resistance 4 27,96 4-5 206 27,96,206
Phylloxera resistance on leaves (ie tolerance to phylloxera leaf galls)    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 1    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 4    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 7    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 19    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 20    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 30    
Ease of bench grafting 4 27 27
Ease of rooting 4 27 27
Affinity with V. vinifera    
Tolerance to saline soils    
Salt Tolerance Index    
Tolerance to soil acidity 4 27,35,56,96,114 27,35,56,96,114
Tolerance to waterlogging 3 24,27,56 24,27,56
Lime tolerance (% = active lime). Lime-induced chlorosis = iron chlorosis 4 27 3 56,73 2 206 27,56,73,206
Other Characteristics    
Information    
*Notes Effects on maturity: A = Advance; D = Delay
Vegetative cycle: L = Long; VL = Very Long; M = Medium; S = Short
 

Phylloxera information

As a risk management option, rootstocks can be used to reduce susceptibility of a vineyard to grape phylloxera, compared to the use of own-rooted Vitis vinifera, which is classified as field susceptible. There are currently 83 genetic strains of phylloxera in Australia. The ability of rootstocks to withstand phylloxera may vary depending on the strain or strains of phylloxera in the vineyard. Seven genetic strains, G1, G4, G7, G19, G20, G30 and G38 are currently maintained and used for rootstock screening. G1 and G4 have higher reproductive capabilities and predominate in Phylloxera Infested Zones (PIZs). Depending on the strain, rootstocks may be field susceptible, tolerant or resistant. The available information from field testing is shown for each rootstock. However, not all rootstocks have been field-tested against each of the main phylloxera strains. Only those tested are shown with a colour code. General rootstock rankings of susceptibility, tolerance or resistance to phylloxera have also been obtained from published international literature and are presented using the same ranking system.

Field susceptible rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera breeds freely and the vine is unable to withstand infestation.

Field tolerant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera can feed, reproduce and cause root galling, but to a lesser extent than on own-rooted grapevines.

Field resistant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera cannot develop beyond the first instar to the adult stage and cannot therefore lay eggs. Feeding does not result in root galling.

G1 G4 G7 G19 G20 G30 G38 General Ranking
Susceptible
Tolerant
Resistant
Not tested
See the distribution of the main phylloxera strains in Australia

Kober 5BB (aka Teleki 5A & Teleki 5BB)

Climate Cool
Vineyard Characteristics Rootstock Attributes *Weighted average rating
Irrigation water availability Drought tolerance 2.11
Overall vineyard vigour Vigour conferred by rootstock to scion 2.98
Soil salinity Tolerance to saline soil 1.88
Soil drainage Tolerance to waterlogging 1.44
Soil pH Tolerance to soil acidity 1.67
Soil pH Tolerance to soil lime 3.32
Occurrence of Nematodes Resistance to Root Knot Nematodes 3.04

*1 = low, 2 = low to moderate, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high

For reference information on these and all other rootstock attributes click on ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ below.

Notes:

  • Noted to perform well in cool areas 29
Resistance to crown gall (Agrobacterium) 4 19,23,26,74 19,23,26,74
Resistance to Cylindrocarpon sp.    
Resistance to Fusarium sp.    
Resistance to Phytophthora sp. 1 3,56,57 3,56,57
Resistance to Pythium sp.    
Resistance to Rhizoctonia sp.    
Resistance to Downy Mildew Plasmopara viticola    
Resistance to Esca 4 148 148
Resistance to Botryosphaeriaceae species    
Drought tolerance 1 3,23,26,29,36,50,52,103,143 1 15 3 18,40,43,47,56,73,96,98,103,104,120,166 2 19,94,98,102,137 4 56 1-2 140,142 2-3 206 3,23,26,29,36,50,52,103,143,15,18,40,43,47,56,73,96,98,103,104,120,166,19,94,98,102,137,56,140,142,206
Tendency to K+ deficiency (potassium absorption) 4 56,164,168 5 204 56,164,168,204
Scion grape juice pH 3 62,128 4 74,171 2 185 62,128,74,171,185
Scion grape juice TA 3 128,171 2 201 4 202 128,171,201,202
Scion grape juice Phenolics    
Scion grape juice Anthocyanins 3 133 2 202 133,202
Scion grape juice chloride 1 122 2-3 128 122,128
Scion grape juice sodium 3 171,201,202 1 63 1&4 128 171,201,202,63,128
Scion grape juice Phosphorus 3 171 171
Scion grape juice Nitrogen    
Scion grape juice Potassium 4 74,133,171 1 68,96 3 201 2 202 74,133,171,68,96,201,202
Tendency to Mg-deficiency 3 164,204 164,204
Nitrogen Uptake 4 56 3 162,164 56,162,164
Effects on maturity (dependant on crop load) *D 56,202 *A 103 56,202,103
Yield 3-4 57,96,128 2 127 1 180 3 171 4 185,188,190 57,96,128,127,180,171,185,188,190
Rooting depth 1-2 3 2-3 8 2 131 3,8,131
Vegetative Cycle *S 3,57 *M 18,34,56  
Vigour conferred to scion (dependant on vine management and best practise viticulture) 4 36,56 3-4 3,18,19,40,57,96,98,166 2 15,29,34,102 3 23,56,68,99,103,104,131,180,185,188,190 1 36,127 4-5 142 36,56,3,18,19,40,57,96,98,166,15,29,34,102,23,56,68,99,103,104,131,180,185,188,190,36,127,142
Improves fruit set (&/or fertility) 1 23 3 56 23,56
Nematode Resistance 4 29,36 3-4 57 3 98,103 29,36,57,98,103
Citrus nematode resistance (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) 4 33 1 96 33,96
Dagger nematode resistance (Xiphinema index) 3 9,15,102,104 1 40,96 9,15,102,104,40,96
Pin Nematode Resistance (Criconemella Xenoplax) 3 33 4 33 33,33
Root lesion nematode resistance (Pratylenchus spp.) 1 40,96 40,96
Rootknot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne spp.) 3 3,8,9,15,18,19,26,99,102,104 4 11,33,40,96 1 23 3-4 97,206 3,8,9,15,18,19,26,99,102,104,11,33,40,96,23,97,206
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. arenaria) - aggressive    
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. javanica) - 'standard' population 1 114,117,173 2 160 4 161 5 194 114,117,173,160,161,194
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. incognita) 5 160 160
Phylloxera resistance 5 3,15,29,57,102,194 4 9,23,36,40,74,99,104,166,206 3 19 3,15,29,57,102,194,9,23,36,40,74,99,104,166,206,19
Phylloxera resistance on leaves (ie tolerance to phylloxera leaf galls) 2 104 104
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 1 4 51,113 5 165 4-5 210 51,113,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 4 4 51 5 113,165,210 51,113,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 7 3 51,165 4 113,210 51,113,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 19 3 51,165 4 210 51,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 20 3 51,165 4 210 51,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 30 3 51,165 5 113 4-5 210 51,113,165,210
Ease of bench grafting 4 3,57 3 103 1&4 166 3,57,103,166
Ease of rooting 4 3,57,103,146,188 5 29,102,104 1&4 166 3,57,103,146,188,29,102,104,166
Affinity with V. vinifera 3 36 5 188 36,188
Tolerance to saline soils 1 3,15,57,98 1 18,40,71,102 3 19,99,205,206 4 23 2 68,96 1&3 144 3,15,57,98,18,40,71,102,19,99,205,206,23,68,96,96,144
Salt Tolerance Index    
Tolerance to soil acidity 1 18,23,102 2 19,56 3 204 18,23,102,19,56,204
Tolerance to waterlogging 1 3,12,18,57,98,205 2 19,56 3 103 3,12,18,57,98,205,19,56,103
Lime tolerance (% = active lime). Lime-induced chlorosis = iron chlorosis 4 3,18,57,96,98 3-4 29 20% 36,68,73,96,98 3 15,19,40,56,73,94,99,102,104,166,206 21% 32 3,18,57,96,98, 29,36,68,73,96,98,15,19,40,56,73,94,99,102,104,166,206,32
Other Characteristics For cool areas. 29 29
Information    
*Notes Effects on maturity: A = Advance; D = Delay
Vegetative cycle: L = Long; VL = Very Long; M = Medium; S = Short
 

Phylloxera information

As a risk management option, rootstocks can be used to reduce susceptibility of a vineyard to grape phylloxera, compared to the use of own-rooted Vitis vinifera, which is classified as field susceptible. There are currently 83 genetic strains of phylloxera in Australia. The ability of rootstocks to withstand phylloxera may vary depending on the strain or strains of phylloxera in the vineyard. Seven genetic strains, G1, G4, G7, G19, G20, G30 and G38 are currently maintained and used for rootstock screening. G1 and G4 have higher reproductive capabilities and predominate in Phylloxera Infested Zones (PIZs). Depending on the strain, rootstocks may be field susceptible, tolerant or resistant. The available information from field testing is shown for each rootstock. However, not all rootstocks have been field-tested against each of the main phylloxera strains. Only those tested are shown with a colour code. General rootstock rankings of susceptibility, tolerance or resistance to phylloxera have also been obtained from published international literature and are presented using the same ranking system.

Field susceptible rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera breeds freely and the vine is unable to withstand infestation.

Field tolerant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera can feed, reproduce and cause root galling, but to a lesser extent than on own-rooted grapevines.

Field resistant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera cannot develop beyond the first instar to the adult stage and cannot therefore lay eggs. Feeding does not result in root galling.

G1 G4 G7 G19 G20 G30 G38 General Ranking
Susceptible
Tolerant
Resistant
Not tested
See the distribution of the main phylloxera strains in Australia

Merbein 5489

Climate Cool [No Reference] Warm [No Reference] Hot [No Reference]
Vineyard Characteristics Rootstock Attributes *Weighted average rating
Irrigation water availability Drought tolerance 2
Overall vineyard vigour Vigour conferred by rootstock to scion 2.38
Soil salinity Tolerance to saline soil 3
Soil drainage Tolerance to waterlogging  
Soil pH Tolerance to soil acidity  
Soil pH Tolerance to soil lime  
Occurrence of Nematodes Resistance to Root Knot Nematodes 2.13

*1 = low, 2 = low to moderate, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high

For reference information on these and all other rootstock attributes click on ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ below.

Notes:

  • Supply of this rootstock in Australia can be limited so consult with nursery suppliers.

No information available for:

  • Tolerance to waterlogged soils
  • Tolerance to soil acidity
  • Lime tolerance
Resistance to crown gall (Agrobacterium)    
Resistance to Cylindrocarpon sp.    
Resistance to Fusarium sp.    
Resistance to Phytophthora sp.    
Resistance to Pythium sp.    
Resistance to Rhizoctonia sp.    
Resistance to Downy Mildew Plasmopara viticola    
Resistance to Esca    
Resistance to Botryosphaeriaceae species    
Drought tolerance 2 141,65 65,141
Tendency to K+ deficiency (potassium absorption)    
Scion grape juice pH 1 56,67,96,105,117,141 2 128 56,67,96,105,117,141,128
Scion grape juice TA 2 128 128
Scion grape juice Phenolics 4 56,67,96,105,117 3 128 56,67,96,105,117,128
Scion grape juice Anthocyanins 4 56,96,105,117 4-5 141 56,96,105,117,141
Scion grape juice chloride 1 128 128
Scion grape juice sodium 1 128,141 128,141
Scion grape juice Phosphorus    
Scion grape juice Nitrogen    
Scion grape juice Potassium 1 56,96,105 1-2 141 56,96,105,141
Tendency to Mg-deficiency    
Nitrogen Uptake    
Effects on maturity (dependant on crop load) *D 128 128
Yield 3 65,117,128,181 4 96,128 3-4 67 2-3 141 65,117,128,181,96,128,67,141
Rooting depth    
Vegetative Cycle    
Vigour conferred to scion (dependant on vine management and best practise viticulture) 3 57,96,105 2 65,67,112,117,128 57,96,105,65,67,112,117,128
Improves fruit set (&/or fertility)    
Nematode Resistance 4 57,96,105 57,96,105
Citrus nematode resistance (Tylenchulus semipenetrans)    
Dagger nematode resistance (Xiphinema index)    
Pin Nematode Resistance (Criconemella Xenoplax)    
Root lesion nematode resistance (Pratylenchus spp.)    
Rootknot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne spp.)    
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. arenaria) - aggressive    
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. javanica) - 'standard' population 1-2 114, 117 2 160 114,117,160
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. incognita) 3-4 96 96
Phylloxera resistance    
Phylloxera resistance on leaves (ie tolerance to phylloxera leaf galls)    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 1 4 57,96,105,117,210 57,96,105,117,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 4 4 57,96,105,117,210 57,96,105,117,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 7    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 19    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 20    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 30 4 57,96,105,117,210 57,96,105,117,210
Ease of bench grafting    
Ease of rooting    
Affinity with V. vinifera    
Tolerance to saline soils 3 128 128
Salt Tolerance Index 4 128 128
Tolerance to soil acidity    
Tolerance to waterlogging    
Lime tolerance (% = active lime). Lime-induced chlorosis = iron chlorosis    
Other Characteristics    
Information    
*Notes Effects on maturity: A = Advance; D = Delay
Vegetative cycle: L = Long; VL = Very Long; M = Medium; S = Short
 

Phylloxera information

As a risk management option, rootstocks can be used to reduce susceptibility of a vineyard to grape phylloxera, compared to the use of own-rooted Vitis vinifera, which is classified as field susceptible. There are currently 83 genetic strains of phylloxera in Australia. The ability of rootstocks to withstand phylloxera may vary depending on the strain or strains of phylloxera in the vineyard. Seven genetic strains, G1, G4, G7, G19, G20, G30 and G38 are currently maintained and used for rootstock screening. G1 and G4 have higher reproductive capabilities and predominate in Phylloxera Infested Zones (PIZs). Depending on the strain, rootstocks may be field susceptible, tolerant or resistant. The available information from field testing is shown for each rootstock. However, not all rootstocks have been field-tested against each of the main phylloxera strains. Only those tested are shown with a colour code. General rootstock rankings of susceptibility, tolerance or resistance to phylloxera have also been obtained from published international literature and are presented using the same ranking system.

Field susceptible rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera breeds freely and the vine is unable to withstand infestation.

Field tolerant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera can feed, reproduce and cause root galling, but to a lesser extent than on own-rooted grapevines.

Field resistant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera cannot develop beyond the first instar to the adult stage and cannot therefore lay eggs. Feeding does not result in root galling.

G1 G4 G7 G19 G20 G30 G38 General Ranking
Susceptible
Tolerant
Resistant
Not tested
See the distribution of the main phylloxera strains in Australia

Merbein 5512

Climate Cool [No Reference] Warm [No Reference] Hot [No Reference]
Vineyard Characteristics Rootstock Attributes *Weighted average rating
Irrigation water availability Drought tolerance 2
Overall vineyard vigour Vigour conferred by rootstock to scion 1.86
Soil salinity Tolerance to saline soil 3
Soil drainage Tolerance to waterlogging  
Soil pH Tolerance to soil acidity  
Soil pH Tolerance to soil lime  
Occurrence of Nematodes Resistance to Root Knot Nematodes 3.13

*1 = low, 2 = low to moderate, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high

For reference information on these and all other rootstock attributes click on ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ below.

Notes:

  • Supply of this rootstock in Australia can be limited so consult with nursery suppliers.

No information available for:

  • Tolerance to waterlogged soils
  • Tolerance to soil acidity
  • Lime tolerance
Resistance to crown gall (Agrobacterium)    
Resistance to Cylindrocarpon sp.    
Resistance to Fusarium sp.    
Resistance to Phytophthora sp.    
Resistance to Pythium sp.    
Resistance to Rhizoctonia sp.    
Resistance to Downy Mildew Plasmopara viticola    
Resistance to Esca    
Resistance to Botryosphaeriaceae species    
Drought tolerance 2 141,65 65,141
Tendency to K+ deficiency (potassium absorption)    
Scion grape juice pH 1 56,96,105,117,141 2 67,128 56,96,105,117,141,67,128
Scion grape juice TA 1 128 128
Scion grape juice Phenolics 4 56,96,105,117 3 67 2 128 56,96,105,117,67,128
Scion grape juice Anthocyanins 4 56,96,105,117 5 141 56,96,105,117,141
Scion grape juice chloride 1 128 128
Scion grape juice sodium 1 128 128
Scion grape juice Phosphorus    
Scion grape juice Nitrogen    
Scion grape juice Potassium 1 56,96,105 3 141 56,96,105,141
Tendency to Mg-deficiency    
Nitrogen Uptake    
Effects on maturity (dependant on crop load) *D 128 128
Yield 3 65,96,128 1 67,117,141 4 181 65,96,128,67,117,141,181
Rooting depth    
Vegetative Cycle    
Vigour conferred to scion (dependant on vine management and best practise viticulture) 2 65,67,105,112,117,128 1 96 65,67,105,112,117,128,96
Improves fruit set (&/or fertility)    
Nematode Resistance 4 96,105 96,105
Citrus nematode resistance (Tylenchulus semipenetrans)    
Dagger nematode resistance (Xiphinema index)    
Pin Nematode Resistance (Criconemella Xenoplax)    
Root lesion nematode resistance (Pratylenchus spp.)    
Rootknot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne spp.)    
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. arenaria) - aggressive    
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. javanica) - 'standard' population 3 114, 117, 160 114,117,160
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. incognita) 3-4 96 96
Phylloxera resistance    
Phylloxera resistance on leaves (ie tolerance to phylloxera leaf galls)    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 1    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 4 4 96,105,117,210 96,105,117,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 7    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 19    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 20    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 30 4 96,105,117, 210 96,105,117,210
Ease of bench grafting    
Ease of rooting    
Affinity with V. vinifera    
Tolerance to saline soils 3 128 128
Salt Tolerance Index 3 128 128
Tolerance to soil acidity    
Tolerance to waterlogging    
Lime tolerance (% = active lime). Lime-induced chlorosis = iron chlorosis    
Other Characteristics    
Information    
*Notes Effects on maturity: A = Advance; D = Delay
Vegetative cycle: L = Long; VL = Very Long; M = Medium; S = Short
 

Phylloxera information

As a risk management option, rootstocks can be used to reduce susceptibility of a vineyard to grape phylloxera, compared to the use of own-rooted Vitis vinifera, which is classified as field susceptible. There are currently 83 genetic strains of phylloxera in Australia. The ability of rootstocks to withstand phylloxera may vary depending on the strain or strains of phylloxera in the vineyard. Seven genetic strains, G1, G4, G7, G19, G20, G30 and G38 are currently maintained and used for rootstock screening. G1 and G4 have higher reproductive capabilities and predominate in Phylloxera Infested Zones (PIZs). Depending on the strain, rootstocks may be field susceptible, tolerant or resistant. The available information from field testing is shown for each rootstock. However, not all rootstocks have been field-tested against each of the main phylloxera strains. Only those tested are shown with a colour code. General rootstock rankings of susceptibility, tolerance or resistance to phylloxera have also been obtained from published international literature and are presented using the same ranking system.

Field susceptible rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera breeds freely and the vine is unable to withstand infestation.

Field tolerant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera can feed, reproduce and cause root galling, but to a lesser extent than on own-rooted grapevines.

Field resistant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera cannot develop beyond the first instar to the adult stage and cannot therefore lay eggs. Feeding does not result in root galling.

G1 G4 G7 G19 G20 G30 G38 General Ranking
Susceptible
Tolerant
Resistant
Not tested
See the distribution of the main phylloxera strains in Australia

Paulsen 775

Climate Cool [No Reference] Warm [No Reference] Hot [No Reference]
Vineyard Characteristics Rootstock Attributes *Weighted average rating
Irrigation water availability Drought tolerance 4.33
Overall vineyard vigour Vigour conferred by rootstock to scion 3.83
Soil salinity Tolerance to saline soil 3.5
Soil drainage Tolerance to waterlogging 4
Soil pH Tolerance to soil acidity  
Soil pH Tolerance to soil lime 4
Occurrence of Nematodes Resistance to Root Knot Nematodes 4

*1 = low, 2 = low to moderate, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high

For reference information on these and all other rootstock attributes click on ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ below.

Notes:

  • Supply of this rootstock in Australia can be limited so consult your nursery.
  • Limited information is available on tolerance to waterlogging.

No information available for:

  • Tolerance to soil acidity
Resistance to crown gall (Agrobacterium) 5 26 26
Resistance to Cylindrocarpon sp.    
Resistance to Fusarium sp.    
Resistance to Phytophthora sp. 4 207 207
Resistance to Pythium sp.    
Resistance to Rhizoctonia sp.    
Resistance to Downy Mildew Plasmopara viticola    
Resistance to Esca    
Resistance to Botryosphaeriaceae species    
Drought tolerance 3 26 5 73 5 207 26,73,207
Tendency to K+ deficiency (potassium absorption)    
Scion grape juice pH    
Scion grape juice TA    
Scion grape juice Phenolics    
Scion grape juice Anthocyanins 4 133 133
Scion grape juice chloride    
Scion grape juice sodium    
Scion grape juice Phosphorus    
Scion grape juice Nitrogen    
Scion grape juice Potassium 3 133 133
Tendency to Mg-deficiency    
Nitrogen Uptake    
Effects on maturity (dependant on crop load) *A 133 133
Yield 4 76 76
Rooting depth    
Vegetative Cycle    
Vigour conferred to scion (dependant on vine management and best practise viticulture) 3 36 3-4 57 5 207 36,57,207
Improves fruit set (&/or fertility)    
Nematode Resistance 3 207 207
Citrus nematode resistance (Tylenchulus semipenetrans)    
Dagger nematode resistance (Xiphinema index)    
Pin Nematode Resistance (Criconemella Xenoplax)    
Root lesion nematode resistance (Pratylenchus spp.)    
Rootknot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne spp.) 4 26 26
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. arenaria) - aggressive    
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. javanica) - 'standard' population 3 160 160
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. incognita) 5 160 160
Phylloxera resistance 4 207 207
Phylloxera resistance on leaves (ie tolerance to phylloxera leaf galls)    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 1    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 4    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 7    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 19    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 20    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 30    
Ease of bench grafting    
Ease of rooting    
Affinity with V. vinifera 3 207 207
Tolerance to saline soils 3 26,206 4 207 26,206,207
Salt Tolerance Index    
Tolerance to soil acidity    
Tolerance to waterlogging 4 207 207
Lime tolerance (% = active lime). Lime-induced chlorosis = iron chlorosis 4 73,207 73,207
Other Characteristics    
Information    
*Notes Effects on maturity: A = Advance; D = Delay
Vegetative cycle: L = Long; VL = Very Long; M = Medium; S = Short
 

Phylloxera information

As a risk management option, rootstocks can be used to reduce susceptibility of a vineyard to grape phylloxera, compared to the use of own-rooted Vitis vinifera, which is classified as field susceptible. There are currently 83 genetic strains of phylloxera in Australia. The ability of rootstocks to withstand phylloxera may vary depending on the strain or strains of phylloxera in the vineyard. Seven genetic strains, G1, G4, G7, G19, G20, G30 and G38 are currently maintained and used for rootstock screening. G1 and G4 have higher reproductive capabilities and predominate in Phylloxera Infested Zones (PIZs). Depending on the strain, rootstocks may be field susceptible, tolerant or resistant. The available information from field testing is shown for each rootstock. However, not all rootstocks have been field-tested against each of the main phylloxera strains. Only those tested are shown with a colour code. General rootstock rankings of susceptibility, tolerance or resistance to phylloxera have also been obtained from published international literature and are presented using the same ranking system.

Field susceptible rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera breeds freely and the vine is unable to withstand infestation.

Field tolerant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera can feed, reproduce and cause root galling, but to a lesser extent than on own-rooted grapevines.

Field resistant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera cannot develop beyond the first instar to the adult stage and cannot therefore lay eggs. Feeding does not result in root galling.

G1 G4 G7 G19 G20 G30 G38 General Ranking
Susceptible
Tolerant
Resistant
Not tested
See the distribution of the main phylloxera strains in Australia

Paulsen 1103

Climate Cool Warm Hot
Vineyard Characteristics Rootstock Attributes *Weighted average rating
Irrigation water availability Drought tolerance 3.81
Overall vineyard vigour Vigour conferred by rootstock to scion 3.59
Soil salinity Tolerance to saline soil 3.56
Soil drainage Tolerance to waterlogging 2.93
Soil pH Tolerance to soil acidity 3.38
Soil pH Tolerance to soil lime 3.36
Occurrence of Nematodes Resistance to Root Knot Nematodes 2.62

*1 = low, 2 = low to moderate, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high

For reference information on these and all other rootstock attributes click on ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ below.

Notes:

  • Not recommended for poor set varieties 96
  • Long term exposure to moderately saline soil (saturation paste EC 2-6 dS/m) may result in high levels of Cl and Na in grape juice 60,116.

Incompatible with: Cabernet Franc3,10

Resistance to crown gall (Agrobacterium) 2 19,26 19,26
Resistance to Cylindrocarpon sp.    
Resistance to Fusarium sp. 4 155 155
Resistance to Phytophthora sp. 1 9,23,26,102,207 9,23,26,102,207
Resistance to Pythium sp.    
Resistance to Rhizoctonia sp.    
Resistance to Downy Mildew Plasmopara viticola    
Resistance to Esca 3 148 148
Resistance to Botryosphaeriaceae species    
Drought tolerance 5 73,96,99,102,207 4 3,6,9,15,18,23,24,40,47,52,56,68,73,74,96,98,102,103,114,120,139,143,158,166,199,208 3 19,23,43,52,205 2 26,153 1 119 3-4 140,141,142 4-5 206 73,96,99,102,207,3,6,9,15,18,23,24,40,47,52,56,68,73,74,96,98,102,103,114,120,139,143,158,166,199,208,19,23,43,52,205,26,153,119,140,141,142,206
Tendency to K+ deficiency (potassium absorption) 4 24,163 24,163
Scion grape juice pH 1 64,74 4 68,74,76,126 3 65, 67,171 2 128,116 1-3 141 64,7468,74,76,126,65, 67,171,128,116,141
Scion grape juice TA 4 82,171 3 128,116,126 3-4 75 82,171,128,116,126,75
Scion grape juice Phenolics 2 67 1 75,126 4 128 67,75,126,128
Scion grape juice Anthocyanins 4 68,82,198 1 75 2 126 1-3 141 68,82,198,75,126,141
Scion grape juice chloride 1 85,98,106,108,111,122,128 2 125 3-4 75,116 4 150 85,98,106,108,111,122,128,125,75,116,150
Scion grape juice sodium 1 98,108,111,128,141 2-4 116 1-4 75 2 125,126 4 150 3 171 2&4 198 98,108,111,128,141,116,75,125,126,150,171,198
Scion grape juice Phosphorus 3-4 126 4 171 126,171
Scion grape juice Nitrogen    
Scion grape juice Potassium 1 64,68,74,96 4 58,68,74,86,126 2&4 141 3 170,171 64,68,74,96,58,68,74,86,126,141,170,171
Tendency to Mg-deficiency 1 18,24,68 4 163 18,24,68,163
Nitrogen Uptake 2 56,157,163 3 126 56,157,163,126
Effects on maturity (dependant on crop load) *D 3,57,96,103 *A 128 3,57,96,103,128
Yield 4 59,68,70,116,127,141,171 1 57,66,180 2 67,128,154,155,189,190 3-4 96,75 3 65,125,181,185,198 59,68,70,116,127,171,57,66,180,67,128,154,155,189,190,96,75,141,65,125,181,185,198,141
Rooting depth 4 3 2 131,206 3,131,206
Vegetative Cycle *L 3,18,52,57,96,102,155 *VL 56 3,18,52,57,96,102,155,56
Vigour conferred to scion (dependant on vine management and best practise viticulture) 4 23,36,56,66,67,68,103,107,108,109,125,127,143,166,177,178,197,206 3-4 3,18,24,96,98,20 3 15,19,26,40,52,65,99,102,112,180,185 2 131,190 5 142,207 23,36,56,66,67,68,103,107,108,109,125,127,143,166,177,178,197,206,3,18,24,96,98,20,15,19,26,40,52,65,99,102,112,180,185,131,190,142,207
Improves fruit set (&/or fertility) 1 96 2 132,189 4 123,166,187 3-4 154 96,132,189,123,166,187,154
Nematode Resistance 2 52 3 57,207,208 52,57,207,208
Citrus nematode resistance (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) 3 33,96 4 33 33,96,33
Dagger nematode resistance (Xiphinema index) 3 9,15,102 1 40,96 9,15,102,40,96
Pin Nematode Resistance (Criconemella Xenoplax) 4 33 33
Root lesion nematode resistance (Pratylenchus spp.) 3 40,96 40,96
Rootknot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne spp.) 4 3,24,33,98 3 9,18,19,26,33,99 3-4 15,40,96,102 1 101 3,24,33,98,9,18,19,26,33,99,15,40,96,102,101
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. arenaria) - aggressive 2 45 1 101 45,101
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. javanica) - 'standard' population 2 45,160 1 101,114,117,173 4 161 45,160,101,114,117,173,161
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. incognita) 1 101 1&5 160 101,160
Phylloxera resistance 4 3,9,15,36,40,99,102,104,206,207 5 5,23 3 19,26 ,9,15,36,40,99,102,104,206,207,5,23,19,26
Phylloxera resistance on leaves (ie tolerance to phylloxera leaf galls)    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 1 3 51,165 5 113 4-5 210 51,165,113,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 4 3 51 5 113,165,210 51,113,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 7 4 51 5 165,210 51,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 19 3 51,165 4 113,210 51,165,113,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 20 4 51 5 165,210 51,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 30 3 51 5 165,210 51,165,210
Ease of bench grafting 4 3,57,103,200 3 52 1 166 3,57,103,200,52,166
Ease of rooting 4 3,26,57,103 3 52,102 1 166 3,26,57,103,52,102,166
Affinity with V. vinifera 5 26,207 4 36,52,200 3 26 26,207,36,52,200,26
Tolerance to saline soils 1 89 3 3,15,19,23,26,57,60,68,71,102,144,206,207 4 40,18,36,40,68,85,98,99,102, 107,110,114,135,147,149,182,197,205,208 5 96 89,3,15,19,23,26,57,60,68,71,102,144,206,207,40,18,36,40,68,85,98,99,102, 107,110,114,135,147,149,182,197,205,208,96,52,96
Salt Tolerance Index 3 128 128
Tolerance to soil acidity 4 3,57,96,98,102 3 18 2 19,56 3,57,96,98,102,18,19,56
Tolerance to waterlogging 1 9,12 3 18,19,52,56,96,98,103,208 4 24,26,68,207 2 205 9,12,18,19,52,56,96,98,103,208,24,26,68,207,205
Lime tolerance (% = active lime). Lime-induced chlorosis = iron chlorosis 4-5 3 4 18,73,94,98,99,158,207 17% 36,52,68,73 3 15,19,40,73,102,157 17-18% 96,98 20% 36 2 56,206 3-4 96 1&4 166 3,18,73,94,98,99,158,207,36,52,68,73,15,19,40,73,102,157,96,98,36,56,206,96,166
Other Characteristics Long term exposure to moderately saline soil (saturation paste EC 2-6 dS/m) may result in high levels of Cl and Na in grape juice 60,116. Not recommended for varieties with poor fruit set 96. A decrease in grape juice K+ concentration with increasing salinity 108 60,116,96,108
Information SARDI long term rootstock trial 208 observed vegetative decline and yield collapse under severe drought stress. Walker et al 122 noted a similar observation during the millennium drought in Langhorne Creek when water availability was low and salt levels were high. 208,122
*Notes Effects on maturity: A = Advance; D = Delay
Vegetative cycle: L = Long; VL = Very Long; M = Medium; S = Short
 

Phylloxera information

As a risk management option, rootstocks can be used to reduce susceptibility of a vineyard to grape phylloxera, compared to the use of own-rooted Vitis vinifera, which is classified as field susceptible. There are currently 83 genetic strains of phylloxera in Australia. The ability of rootstocks to withstand phylloxera may vary depending on the strain or strains of phylloxera in the vineyard. Seven genetic strains, G1, G4, G7, G19, G20, G30 and G38 are currently maintained and used for rootstock screening. G1 and G4 have higher reproductive capabilities and predominate in Phylloxera Infested Zones (PIZs). Depending on the strain, rootstocks may be field susceptible, tolerant or resistant. The available information from field testing is shown for each rootstock. However, not all rootstocks have been field-tested against each of the main phylloxera strains. Only those tested are shown with a colour code. General rootstock rankings of susceptibility, tolerance or resistance to phylloxera have also been obtained from published international literature and are presented using the same ranking system.

Field susceptible rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera breeds freely and the vine is unable to withstand infestation.

Field tolerant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera can feed, reproduce and cause root galling, but to a lesser extent than on own-rooted grapevines.

Field resistant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera cannot develop beyond the first instar to the adult stage and cannot therefore lay eggs. Feeding does not result in root galling.

G1 G4 G7 G19 G20 G30 G38 General Ranking
Susceptible
Tolerant
Resistant
Not tested
See the distribution of the main phylloxera strains in Australia

Ramsey

Climate Cool Warm Hot
Vineyard Characteristics Rootstock Attributes *Weighted average rating
Irrigation water availability Drought tolerance 3.83
Overall vineyard vigour Vigour conferred by rootstock to scion 4.11
Soil salinity Tolerance to saline soil 4.05
Soil drainage Tolerance to waterlogging 2.07
Soil pH Tolerance to soil acidity 3.4
Soil pH Tolerance to soil lime 2.83
Occurrence of Nematodes Resistance to Root Knot Nematodes 4.15

*1 = low, 2 = low to moderate, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high

For reference information on these and all other rootstock attributes click on ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ below.

Notes:

  • Reduced bud fruitfulness 3.
  • Susceptible to zinc deficiency 15,29,34,99.
  • Increased potassium levels have been observed in grape juice in some situations96
  • Not suited to soils prone to spring waterlogging 57,96,98
  • Long term exposure to moderately saline soil (saturation paste EC 2-6 dS/m) may result in high levels of Cl and Na in grape juice 60,116.
  • Ramsey can confer very high vigour128 which can be undesirable in some situations

Incompatible with: Muscat3,4,9,15, 23, Harslevelu, Muscadelle, Souzao3,10, Barlinka10,23,34,102, Early Muscat, Malta Seedless10,23, Menindee Seedless, Muscadet, Muscat Blanc, Muscat Gordo Blanco29,31,34,102  and Muscat Hamburg10

Resistance to crown gall (Agrobacterium) 1 4,19,26 4,19,26
Resistance to Cylindrocarpon sp. 1 22 22
Resistance to Fusarium sp. 1 22 22
Resistance to Phytophthora sp. 4 9,22,26,102 9,22,26,102
Resistance to Pythium sp. 1 22 22
Resistance to Rhizoctonia sp. 1 22 22
Resistance to Downy Mildew Plasmopara viticola    
Resistance to Esca    
Resistance to Botryosphaeriaceae species    
Drought tolerance 4 6,15,18,23,43,68,96,98,104,114,119,120,152,153,205,208 3 19,73,99,102,142,199 2 26 3-4 40,143 5 57,96,141,145 3-5 206 6,15,18,23,43,68,96,98,104,114,119,120,152,153,205,208,19,73,99,102,142,199,26,40,143,57,96,141,145,206
Tendency to K+ deficiency (potassium absorption) 5 3 4 23 3,23
Scion grape juice pH 1 57,119 3 15,62,128 4 33,67,68,74,111 2 116 3-4 57,128 5 126 1&3 141 57,119,15,62,128,33,67,68,74,111,116,57,128,126,141
Scion grape juice TA 1 33,128 4 67,74,77,119 3-4 75,116 3 126 33,128,67,74,77,119,75,116,126
Scion grape juice Phenolics 3 33,75 1 67,114,126 2 128 33,75,67,114,126,128
Scion grape juice Anthocyanins 2 126 3 33,75,98 4 57,68 1 141 126,33,75,98,57,68,141
Scion grape juice chloride 3 33 1 57,98,106,108,111,125,128 3-4 75,116 2 122 33,57,98,106,108,111,125,128,75,116,122
Scion grape juice sodium 4 33 1 79,98,111,128,63 2 116,125,126 3-4 75 3 141 33,79,98,111,128,63,116,125,126,75,141
Scion grape juice Phosphorus 5 72 4 78 3-4 12 72,78,12
Scion grape juice Nitrogen 4 33,78 5 72 33,78,72
Scion grape juice Potassium 4 33,57,58,74,77,78,79,96,98,126 3 141,170 33,57,58,74,77,78,79,96,98,126,141,170
Tendency to Mg-deficiency 3 78 78
Nitrogen Uptake 3 126 126
Effects on maturity (dependant on crop load) *D 3,4,33,57,96,98,126 3,4,33,57,96,98,126
Yield 4 57,67,76,77,85,96,98,106,116,125,127,141,152,153,179 3-4 57,75 5 128 3 65,119,175 4 181 57,67,76,77,85,96,98,106,116,125,127,141,152,153,179,57,75,128,65,119,175,181
Rooting depth    
Vegetative Cycle *L 18,96 *VL 34 18,96,34
Vigour conferred to scion (dependant on vine management and best practise viticulture) 5 3,15,57,68,96,98,142 4 4,23,26,29,40,45,54,65,67,74,99,102,104,106,107,108,109,112,127,208 3-4 18,19,57 3 65,125 3,15,57,68,96,98,142,4,23,26,29,40,45,54,65,67,74,99,102,104,106,107,108,109,112,127,208,18,19,57,65,125
Improves fruit set (&/or fertility) 3 57 4 123 1 187 57,123,187
Nematode Resistance 4 29,74,99,208 3 57 5 57,98 29,74,99,208,57,57,98
Citrus nematode resistance (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) 3 33,54 4 23,33,96,97 5 23 33,54,23,33,96,97,23
Dagger nematode resistance (Xiphinema index) 1 9,15,23,40,96,102,104,206 2 104 9,15,23,40,96,102,104,206,104
Pin Nematode Resistance (Criconemella Xenoplax) 4 33 3 33 33
Root lesion nematode resistance (Pratylenchus spp.) 4 9,15,40,54,96,102,104 5 33 9,15,40,54,96,102,104,33
Rootknot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne spp.) 5 3,9,206 4 4,8,15,18,19,23,26,33,40,74,96,97,99,102,104 3,9,206,4,8,15,18,19,23,26,33,40,74,96,97,99,102,104
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. arenaria) - aggressive 1 45 45
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. javanica) - 'standard' population 3-4 45 5 114,117,160,173 45,114,117,160,173
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. incognita) 5 160 160
Phylloxera resistance 4 3,9,15,23,31,40,57,102,104,206 3-4 29 3 4,19,25,26,104 3,9,15,23,31,40,57,102,206,29,4,19,25,26,104
Phylloxera resistance on leaves (ie tolerance to phylloxera leaf galls) 2 104 104
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 1 3 51,165 5 113 4-5 210 51,165,113,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 4 3 51,165 4 113,210 51,165,210,113
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 7 3 51,165 4 210 51,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 19 3 51,165 4 210 51,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 20 3 51,165 4 210 51,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 30 3 51,165 4 210 51,165,210
Ease of bench grafting 4 57 3 200 57,200
Ease of rooting 1 26,29,54,57,102,104 26,29,54,57,102,104
Affinity with V. vinifera 1 26 4 200  
Tolerance to saline soils 5 3,4,23,54,57 4 9,18,19,23,26,40,54,57,68,74,76,98,99,102,106,107,110,114,144,208 3 60 2 147 3-4 96,205 4-5 206 3,4,23,54,57,9,18,19,23,26,40,54,57,68,74,76,98,99,102,106,107,110,114,144,208,60,96,147,96,205,206
Salt Tolerance Index 3 128 128
Tolerance to soil acidity 3 18,19,102 4 23,57 18,19,102,23,57
Tolerance to waterlogging 3 3,4,12,26,57 4 9 1 18,23,55,96,98,208 2 19,57,68 3,4,12,26,57,9,18,23,55,96,98,208,19,57,68
Lime tolerance (% = active lime). Lime-induced chlorosis = iron chlorosis 3 4,15,18,19,29,40,68,96,99,102,104 1 27 4,15,18,19,29,40,68,96,99,102,104,27
Other Characteristics Reduced bud fruitfulness3. Susceptible to zinc deficiency.15,29,34,99. Long term exposure to moderately saline saline soil (saturation paste EC 2-6 dS/m) may result in high levels of Cl and Na in grape juice 60,116. Increased potassium levels have been observed in grape juice in some situations 96 Not suited to soils prone to spring waterlogging 57,96,98 15,29,34,99.60,116,96,57,96,98
Information SARDI long term rootstock trial 208 observed scions on Ramsey often contained higher concentrations of Na and Cl than vines grafted to other rootstock. Walker et al 128 noted higher concentrations of Cl in laminae of Ramsey compared with some other rootstocks, however Ramsey would still be classified as a moderate to good salt excluder. The SARDI observations are also similar to observations made in the Walker et al (2014)116 long term salinity study (Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 20, 496-506). 208,128
*Notes Effects on maturity: A = Advance; D = Delay
Vegetative cycle: L = Long; VL = Very Long; M = Medium; S = Short
 

Phylloxera information

As a risk management option, rootstocks can be used to reduce susceptibility of a vineyard to grape phylloxera, compared to the use of own-rooted Vitis vinifera, which is classified as field susceptible. There are currently 83 genetic strains of phylloxera in Australia. The ability of rootstocks to withstand phylloxera may vary depending on the strain or strains of phylloxera in the vineyard. Seven genetic strains, G1, G4, G7, G19, G20, G30 and G38 are currently maintained and used for rootstock screening. G1 and G4 have higher reproductive capabilities and predominate in Phylloxera Infested Zones (PIZs). Depending on the strain, rootstocks may be field susceptible, tolerant or resistant. The available information from field testing is shown for each rootstock. However, not all rootstocks have been field-tested against each of the main phylloxera strains. Only those tested are shown with a colour code. General rootstock rankings of susceptibility, tolerance or resistance to phylloxera have also been obtained from published international literature and are presented using the same ranking system.

Field susceptible rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera breeds freely and the vine is unable to withstand infestation.

Field tolerant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera can feed, reproduce and cause root galling, but to a lesser extent than on own-rooted grapevines.

Field resistant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera cannot develop beyond the first instar to the adult stage and cannot therefore lay eggs. Feeding does not result in root galling.

G1 G4 G7 G19 G20 G30 G38 General Ranking
Susceptible
Tolerant
Resistant
Not tested
See the distribution of the main phylloxera strains in Australia

Richter 110

Climate Cool Warm Hot
Vineyard Characteristics Rootstock Attributes *Weighted average rating
Irrigation water availability Drought tolerance 4.16
Overall vineyard vigour Vigour conferred by rootstock to scion 3.17
Soil salinity Tolerance to saline soil 3
Soil drainage Tolerance to waterlogging 3.07
Soil pH Tolerance to soil acidity 3.7
Soil pH Tolerance to soil lime 3.37
Occurrence of Nematodes Resistance to Root Knot Nematodes 2.65

*1 = low, 2 = low to moderate, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high

For reference information on these and all other rootstock attributes click on ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ below.

Notes:

  • Not appropriate for varieties with irregular set 5796.
  • Suited to warm areas with arid climates 3
Resistance to crown gall (Agrobacterium) 1 19,23,26 19,23,26
Resistance to Cylindrocarpon sp.    
Resistance to Fusarium sp. 4 155 155
Resistance to Phytophthora sp. 3 9,102 2 26,207  
Resistance to Pythium sp.   9,102,26,207
Resistance to Rhizoctonia sp.    
Resistance to Downy Mildew Plasmopara viticola    
Resistance to Esca    
Resistance to Botryosphaeriaceae species    
Drought tolerance 4 3,6,9,15,18,19,23,24,26,38,52,57,68,73,74,94,96,98,103,114,119,136,138,139,140,142,143,145,153,158,166,208 5 17,32,47,52,73,96,102,104,192,207 3 56,199,205 4-5 206 3,6,9,15,18,19,23,24,26,38,52,57,68,73,74,94,96,98,103,114,119,136,138,139,140,142,143,145,153,158,166,208,17,32,47,52,73,96,102,104,192,207,56,199,205,206
Tendency to K+ deficiency (potassium absorption) 1 24 4 56,157 3 172 24,56,157,172
Scion grape juice pH 1 15,57,62,64,95,128 2 171,186 3 190 15,57,62,64,95,128,171,186,190
Scion grape juice TA 1 39 4 66,171,186 2 128,185 39,66,171,186,128,185
Scion grape juice Phenolics 1 114 3 128 2 185 114,128,185
Scion grape juice Anthocyanins 4 198 198
Scion grape juice chloride 1 57,122,128 57,122,128
Scion grape juice sodium 1 57,128,63 3 171 2-3 198 57,128,63,171,198
Scion grape juice Phosphorus 4 74 3 171 74,171
Scion grape juice Nitrogen 4 172 172
Scion grape juice Potassium 1 57,64,68,96 4 74,170,174 2 171 57,64,68,96,74,170,174,171
Tendency to Mg-deficiency 4 18,24,56 18,24,56
Nitrogen Uptake 2 56,157 56,157
Effects on maturity (dependant on crop load) *D 3,36,56,57,96,98,103,186 *A 32,56 3,36,56,57,96,98,103,186,32,56
Yield 2 180,185 4 171,186,190,198 3 128 180,185,171,186,190,198,128
Rooting depth 3 3,131 2-3 8 1 23 3,131,8,1,23
Vegetative Cycle *L 3,18,56,57,96,98,155 *VL 52 S 56 3,18,56,57,96,98,155,52,56
Vigour conferred to scion (dependant on vine management and best practise viticulture) 3-4 3,24,57,68,98 4 23,66,103,131,151,166,186,206 1 15,23,180 3 18,26,52,96,102,193,197,208 2 19,56,57,104,185,190 5 32,56,207 4-5 142 3,24,57,68,98,23,66,103,131,151,166,186,206,15,23,180,18,26,52,96,102,193,197,208,19,56,57,104,185,190,32,56,207,142
Improves fruit set (&/or fertility) 1 96,154 4 166,187 96,154,166,187
Nematode Resistance 4 31 3 36,57,98,103,207,208 2 52 31, 36,57,98,103,207,208,52
Citrus nematode resistance (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) 4 33 3 96 33,96
Dagger nematode resistance (Xiphinema index) 1 9,15,23,96,102 2 53 9,15,23,96,102,53
Pin Nematode Resistance (Criconemella Xenoplax) 4 33 33
Root lesion nematode resistance (Pratylenchus spp.) 1 9,15,96,102 2 30,104 3 97 9,15,96,102,30,104,97
Rootknot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne spp.) 3 3,8,9,15,18,30,96,102,104 2 19,26 1 24,101 4 33 3-4 206 3,8,9,15,18,30,96,102,104.19,26,24,101,33,206
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. arenaria) - aggressive 1 101 3 45 101,45
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. javanica) - 'standard' population 1 101 3 45 5 160 101,45,160
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. incognita) 1 101,160 101,160
Phylloxera resistance 4 3,19,26,36,57,102,104,206,207 5 9,15,23 3 25,69 3,19,26,36,57,102,104,206,207,9,15,23,25,69
Phylloxera resistance on leaves (ie tolerance to phylloxera leaf galls) 4 104 104
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 1 3 51,165 4 113,210 51,165,113,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 4 3 51,165 4 113,210 51,165,113,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 7 4 51,113 5 165 4-5 210 51,113,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 19 4 51 5 165 4-5 210 51,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 20 3 51,165 4 210 51,113,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 30 4 51 5 113,165 4-5 210 51.113,165,210
Ease of bench grafting 4 3 3 32,52,103,200 1 57,166 3,32,52,103,200,57,166
Ease of rooting 4 3 3 26,32,52,102,104 1 57,103,166 3,26,32,52,102,104,57,103,166
Affinity with V. vinifera 5 26,32,207 4 52,200 26,32,207,52,200
Tolerance to saline soils 3 18,19,23,26,68,206,208 2 96,197 4 205,207 18,19,23,26,68,206,208,96,197,96,205,207
Salt Tolerance Index 4 128 128
Tolerance to soil acidity 4 9,13,23,57,96,98,207 3 18,19,56 9,13,23,57,96,98,207,18,19,56
Tolerance to waterlogging 4 3,26,96,207 3 9,12,18,19,52,56,98,208 1 24 2 205 3,26,96,207,9,12,18,19,52,56,98,208,24,205
Lime tolerance (% = active lime). Lime-induced chlorosis = iron chlorosis 5 3 3 9,15,19,73,102,104,196 4 18,73,94,98,158,159,207 17% 32,36,52,68,73,96,98 2 56,206 3-4 96 1&4 166 3,9,15,19,73,102,104,196,18,73,94,98,158,159,207,32,36,52,68,73,96,98,56,206,96,166
Other Characteristics

Not appropriate for varieties with irregular set 57. Warm areas with arid climates3. Not suited to scion varieties with irregular set 96

57,98
Information SARDI long term rootstock trial 208 observed 110 Richter vigour: smaller canopies than vines grafted to other rootstocks. 208
*Notes Effects on maturity: A = Advance; D = Delay
Vegetative cycle: L = Long; VL = Very Long; M = Medium; S = Short
 

Phylloxera information

As a risk management option, rootstocks can be used to reduce susceptibility of a vineyard to grape phylloxera, compared to the use of own-rooted Vitis vinifera, which is classified as field susceptible. There are currently 83 genetic strains of phylloxera in Australia. The ability of rootstocks to withstand phylloxera may vary depending on the strain or strains of phylloxera in the vineyard. Seven genetic strains, G1, G4, G7, G19, G20, G30 and G38 are currently maintained and used for rootstock screening. G1 and G4 have higher reproductive capabilities and predominate in Phylloxera Infested Zones (PIZs). Depending on the strain, rootstocks may be field susceptible, tolerant or resistant. The available information from field testing is shown for each rootstock. However, not all rootstocks have been field-tested against each of the main phylloxera strains. Only those tested are shown with a colour code. General rootstock rankings of susceptibility, tolerance or resistance to phylloxera have also been obtained from published international literature and are presented using the same ranking system.

Field susceptible rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera breeds freely and the vine is unable to withstand infestation.

Field tolerant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera can feed, reproduce and cause root galling, but to a lesser extent than on own-rooted grapevines.

Field resistant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera cannot develop beyond the first instar to the adult stage and cannot therefore lay eggs. Feeding does not result in root galling.

G1 G4 G7 G19 G20 G30 G38 General Ranking
Susceptible
Tolerant
Resistant
Not tested
See the distribution of the main phylloxera strains in Australia

Richter 99

Climate Cool Warm
Vineyard Characteristics Rootstock Attributes *Weighted average rating
Irrigation water availability Drought tolerance 3.38
Overall vineyard vigour Vigour conferred by rootstock to scion 3.33
Soil salinity Tolerance to saline soil 2.4
Soil drainage Tolerance to waterlogging 1.12
Soil pH Tolerance to soil acidity 3.43
Soil pH Tolerance to soil lime 3.26
Occurrence of Nematodes Resistance to Root Knot Nematodes 3.48

*1 = low, 2 = low to moderate, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high

For reference information on these and all other rootstock attributes click on ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ below.

Notes:

  • Can be grown under cool conditions 3.
  • Not suited to soils prone to spring waterlogging 96,98

Incompatible with: Cabernet Sauvignon10

Resistance to crown gall (Agrobacterium) 1 19,23,26 19,23,26
Resistance to Cylindrocarpon sp. 4 22 22
Resistance to Fusarium sp. 4 22,155 22,155
Resistance to Phytophthora sp. 1 9,12,23,26,57,102,207 4 22 9,12,23,26,57,102,207,22
Resistance to Pythium sp. 1 22 22
Resistance to Rhizoctonia sp. 4 22 22
Resistance to Downy Mildew Plasmopara viticola    
Resistance to Esca    
Resistance to Botryosphaeriaceae species    
Drought tolerance 4 3,9,15,23,32,37,47,57,73,94,102,104,137,166,207 3 6,18,19,23,26,29,96,103,140,142,199,208 2 52,56,98,153 3-5 206 3,9,15,23,32,37,47,57,73,94,102,104,137,166,207,6,18,19,23,26,29,96,103,140,142,199,208,52,56,98,153,206
Tendency to K+ deficiency (potassium absorption)    
Scion grape juice pH 4 76 2 171 76,171
Scion grape juice TA 4 171 171
Scion grape juice Phenolics 2 185 185
Scion grape juice Anthocyanins    
Scion grape juice chloride   171
Scion grape juice sodium 4 171 171
Scion grape juice Phosphorus 3 171  
Scion grape juice Nitrogen    
Scion grape juice Potassium 3 96 2 171 96,171
Tendency to Mg-deficiency 4 18,56 18,56
Nitrogen Uptake 3 56 56
Effects on maturity (dependant on crop load) *D 3,56,57,96,98,103 *A 32 3,56,57,96,98,103,32
Yield 4 70,171,207 3-4 57,96 2 155,180,185 70,171,207,57,96,155,180,185
Rooting depth 4 3,206 2 131 3,206,131
Vegetative Cycle *S 3,57 *M 18,52 *VL 56 *L 155 3,57,18,52,56,155
Vigour conferred to scion (dependant on vine management and best practise viticulture) 4 3,23,26,52,56,57,103 5 142,166,207 1 15,29,37 3-4 18,19,57,96,98,208 3 56,102,104,131 2 180,185 3,23,26,52,56,57,103,142,166,207,15,29,37,18,19,57,96,98,208,56,102,104,131,180,185
Improves fruit set (&/or fertility) 4 166,187 166,187
Nematode Resistance 3 29,52,207,208 4 36,57,103 1 37 29,52,207,208,36,57,103,37
Citrus nematode resistance (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) 1 96 96
Dagger nematode resistance (Xiphinema index) 3 9,15,53,102 1 96 9,15,53,102,96
Pin Nematode Resistance (Criconemella Xenoplax)    
Root lesion nematode resistance (Pratylenchus spp.) 3 9,15,30,104,102 1 96,97 9,15,30,104,102,96,97
Rootknot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne spp.) 4 3,102 3 9,15,18,19,26,30,104 1 17 3-4 96,97 3,102,9,15,18,19,26,30,104,17,96,97
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. arenaria) - aggressive    
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. javanica) - 'standard' population 5 114,117,160 4 194 114,117,160,194
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. incognita) 1&5 160 4 194 160,194
Phylloxera resistance 4 3,9,15,19,23,26,29,36,37,57,102,104,206,207 5 23 3,9,15,19,23,26,29,36,37,57,102,104,206,207,23
Phylloxera resistance on leaves (ie tolerance to phylloxera leaf galls) 2 104 104
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 1    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 4    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 7    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 19    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 20    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 30    
Ease of bench grafting 4 3,37,52,57 3 29 1 32,103,166 3,37,52,57,29,32,103,166
Ease of rooting 4 3,26,32,37,52 3 57,102,103,104 1 166 3,26,32,37,52,57,102,103,104,166
Affinity with V. vinifera 5 26,207 4 52 26,207,52
Tolerance to saline soils 1 3,57,208 2 96 3 18,19,23,26,206 4 207 3,57,208,96,18,19,23,26,206,96,207
Salt Tolerance Index    
Tolerance to soil acidity 4 3,9,13,23,56,57,70,96,98,207 3 18,19 1 23,36 3,9,13,23,56,57,70,96,98,207,18,19,23,36
Tolerance to waterlogging 1 3,9,12,18,19,23,26,29,52,56,57,96,98,102,103,208 3 207 3,9,12,18,19,23,26,29,52,56,57,96,98,102,103,208,207
Lime tolerance (% = active lime). Lime-induced chlorosis = iron chlorosis 4 3,18,37,57,98,207 17% 32,36,52,73,96 3 15,19,73,94,102,104 3-4 29,96 2 56,206 1&4 166 3,18,37,57,98,207,32,36,52,73,96,15,19,73,94,102,104,29,96,56,206,166
Other Characteristics Can be grown under cool conditions 3. Not suited to soils prone to spring waterlogging 96,98 96,98
Information    
*Notes Effects on maturity: A = Advance; D = Delay
Vegetative cycle: L = Long; VL = Very Long; M = Medium; S = Short
 

Phylloxera information

As a risk management option, rootstocks can be used to reduce susceptibility of a vineyard to grape phylloxera, compared to the use of own-rooted Vitis vinifera, which is classified as field susceptible. There are currently 83 genetic strains of phylloxera in Australia. The ability of rootstocks to withstand phylloxera may vary depending on the strain or strains of phylloxera in the vineyard. Seven genetic strains, G1, G4, G7, G19, G20, G30 and G38 are currently maintained and used for rootstock screening. G1 and G4 have higher reproductive capabilities and predominate in Phylloxera Infested Zones (PIZs). Depending on the strain, rootstocks may be field susceptible, tolerant or resistant. The available information from field testing is shown for each rootstock. However, not all rootstocks have been field-tested against each of the main phylloxera strains. Only those tested are shown with a colour code. General rootstock rankings of susceptibility, tolerance or resistance to phylloxera have also been obtained from published international literature and are presented using the same ranking system.

Field susceptible rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera breeds freely and the vine is unable to withstand infestation.

Field tolerant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera can feed, reproduce and cause root galling, but to a lesser extent than on own-rooted grapevines.

Field resistant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera cannot develop beyond the first instar to the adult stage and cannot therefore lay eggs. Feeding does not result in root galling.

G1 G4 G7 G19 G20 G30 G38 General Ranking
Susceptible
Tolerant
Resistant
Not tested
See the distribution of the main phylloxera strains in Australia

Ruggeri 140

Climate Cool Warm Hot
Vineyard Characteristics Rootstock Attributes *Weighted average rating
Irrigation water availability Drought tolerance 4.16
Overall vineyard vigour Vigour conferred by rootstock to scion 3.68
Soil salinity Tolerance to saline soil 3.92
Soil drainage Tolerance to waterlogging 2.19
Soil pH Tolerance to soil acidity 3.67
Soil pH Tolerance to soil lime 4.02
Occurrence of Nematodes Resistance to Root Knot Nematodes 3.23

*1 = low, 2 = low to moderate, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high

For reference information on these and all other rootstock attributes click on ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ below.

Notes:

  • Moderately susceptible to spring waterlogging, particularly in its formative years 96,98

Incompatible with: Sangiovese10

Resistance to crown gall (Agrobacterium) 1 4,19,26 4,19,26
Resistance to Cylindrocarpon sp.    
Resistance to Fusarium sp.    
Resistance to Phytophthora sp. 3 9,102 2 26,207 9,102,26,207
Resistance to Pythium sp.    
Resistance to Rhizoctonia sp.    
Resistance to Downy Mildew Plasmopara viticola    
Resistance to Esca    
Resistance to Botryosphaeriaceae species    
Drought tolerance 5 3,40,47,52,56,73,96,98,102,104,136,141,207 4 6,9,15,18,19,23,24,26,38,52,56,73,74,94,96,99,103,114,120,143,158,166,205,208 3 43,119,199 3-4 140,142 2 153 3-5 206 3,40,47,52,56,73,96,98,102,104,136,141,207,6,9,15,18,19,23,24,26,38,52,56,73,74,94,96,99,103,114,120,143,158,166,205,208,43,119,199,140,142,153,206
Tendency to K+ deficiency (potassium absorption) 4 24,56 2 164 24,56,164
Scion grape juice pH 1 15,61,62,64,74,95 2 116 4 33,74,126 3-4 128 2-3 141 15,61,62,64,74,95,116,33,74,126,128,128,141
Scion grape juice TA 3 33,126 4 82 1 128 2 116 1-4 75 33,126,82,128,116,75
Scion grape juice Phenolics 4 33 1 75,126 3 128 33,75,126,128
Scion grape juice Anthocyanins 4 33 3 75 2 126 1-2 141 33,75,126,141
Scion grape juice chloride 3 33 1 98,106,111,117,118,122,125,128 2 116,150 3 75 1-2 128 33,98,106,111,117,118,122,125,128,116,150,75,128
Scion grape juice sodium 3 33,116,125,150 1 98,111,128 2 75,126,141 1&3 128 33,116,125,150,98,111,128,75,126,141,128
Scion grape juice Phosphorus 3-4 126 126
Scion grape juice Nitrogen 3 33 4 90 33,90
Scion grape juice Potassium 4 33,74,126,170 1 15,64 3 96 2 141 33,74,126,170,15,64,96,141
Tendency to Mg-deficiency 1 18,24 3 164 18,24,164
Nitrogen Uptake 3 56,126 2 164 56,126,164
Effects on maturity (dependant on crop load) *D 23,35,36,40,96,10 23,35,36,40,96,103
Yield 4 59,76,98,106,127,128,154 3-4 75,96,116,141 5 128 3 125,18 59,76,98,106,127,128,154,75,96,116,128,125,181,141
Rooting depth 5 3 2 131,206  
Vegetative Cycle *L 18,35,96 *VL 52,102 *M 56  
Vigour conferred to scion (dependant on vine management and best practise viticulture) 4 3,4,15,23,26,35,36,52,66,102,103,106,166,206 5 98,142,207 3-4 18,19,24,96,208 3 23,40,45,56,99,104,112,125,127,131,184 3,4,15,23,26,35,36,52,66,102,103,106,166,206,98,142,207,18,19,24,96,208,23,40,45,56,99,104,112,125,127,131,184
Improves fruit set (&/or fertility) 3 132 2 154,187 4 166 132,154,187,166
Nematode Resistance 4 36,208 3 52,98 2 207 36,208,52,98,207
Citrus nematode resistance (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) 1 96 96
Dagger nematode resistance (Xiphinema index) 1 9,15,40,102 2 104 9,15,40,102,104
Pin Nematode Resistance (Criconemella Xenoplax)    
Root lesion nematode resistance (Pratylenchus spp.) 1 40,96 40,96
Rootknot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne spp.) 3 3,4,9,15,18,19,99,102,104 4 24,40,96 1 26 3-4 206 3,4,9,15,18,19,99,102,104,24,40,96,26,206
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. arenaria) - aggressive    
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. javanica) - 'standard' population 1 45 5 114,117,160 4 173 45,114,117,160,173
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. incognita) 1 160  
Phylloxera resistance 4 3,4,9,15,36,40,99,102,104,206 3 19,26,207 5 23 3,4,9,15,36,40,99,102,104,206,19,26,207,23
Phylloxera resistance on leaves (ie tolerance to phylloxera leaf galls)    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 1 3 51 5 113,165 4-5 210 51,113,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 4 3 51,165 5 113 4-5 210 51,113,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 7 4 51 5 113,165,210 51,113,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 19 4 51 5 165,210 51,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 20 4 51 5 165,210 51,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 30 4 51 5 165,210 51,165,210
Ease of bench grafting 4 3 3 52,103 1 166 3,52,103,166
Ease of rooting 1 3,166 3 26,52,102,103,104 3,166,26,52,102,103,104
Affinity with V. vinifera 4 26,36,52 5 207 26,36,52,207
Tolerance to saline soils 5 41,98 4 2,3,4,18,19,23,26,60,67,76,99,102,106,114,206,207,208 3 23,60,71,144 3-4 96 4-5 206 41,98,2,3,4,18,19,23,26,60,67,76,99,102,106,114,206,207,208,23,60,71,144,96,96,206
Salt Tolerance Index 4 128 128
Tolerance to soil acidity 4 3,9,13,18,19,23,40,96,102,207 3 98 1 56 3,9,13,18,19,23,40,96,102,207,98,56
Tolerance to waterlogging 3 3,9,12,26,96,98,207 2 4,19,52,56,205 1 18,24,103,208 3,9,12,26,96,98,207,4,19,52,56,205,18,24,103,208
Lime tolerance (% = active lime). Lime-induced chlorosis = iron chlorosis 4 3,15,18,19,40,68,73,74,83,94,96,98,99,102,104,156,158,159,195 5 4,73,157,207 20% 36,52,96,98 40% 36 2 56 25% 73 1&4 166 3,15,18,19,40,68,73,74,83,94,96,98,99,102,104,156,158,159,195,4,73,157,207,36,52,96,98,36,56,73,166
Other Characteristics Moderately susceptible to spring waterlogging, particularly in its formative years 96,98 96,98
Information SARDI long term rootstock trial208 observed 140 Ruggeri drought tolerance: (1) retained good vigour under severe drought stress, but yield potential (inflorescence counts) collapsed, and (2) significant age related yield decline observed at a number of sites. Walker et al (2014) 116 did not observe age related yield decline in a long term (14 year) study (Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 20, 496-506). 116,208
*Notes Effects on maturity: A = Advance; D = Delay
Vegetative cycle: L = Long; VL = Very Long; M = Medium; S = Short
 

Phylloxera information

As a risk management option, rootstocks can be used to reduce susceptibility of a vineyard to grape phylloxera, compared to the use of own-rooted Vitis vinifera, which is classified as field susceptible. There are currently 83 genetic strains of phylloxera in Australia. The ability of rootstocks to withstand phylloxera may vary depending on the strain or strains of phylloxera in the vineyard. Seven genetic strains, G1, G4, G7, G19, G20, G30 and G38 are currently maintained and used for rootstock screening. G1 and G4 have higher reproductive capabilities and predominate in Phylloxera Infested Zones (PIZs). Depending on the strain, rootstocks may be field susceptible, tolerant or resistant. The available information from field testing is shown for each rootstock. However, not all rootstocks have been field-tested against each of the main phylloxera strains. Only those tested are shown with a colour code. General rootstock rankings of susceptibility, tolerance or resistance to phylloxera have also been obtained from published international literature and are presented using the same ranking system.

Field susceptible rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera breeds freely and the vine is unable to withstand infestation.

Field tolerant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera can feed, reproduce and cause root galling, but to a lesser extent than on own-rooted grapevines.

Field resistant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera cannot develop beyond the first instar to the adult stage and cannot therefore lay eggs. Feeding does not result in root galling.

G1 G4 G7 G19 G20 G30 G38 General Ranking
Susceptible
Tolerant
Resistant
Not tested
See the distribution of the main phylloxera strains in Australia

Schwarzmann

Climate Cool Warm [No Reference] Hot [No Reference]
Vineyard Characteristics Rootstock Attributes *Weighted average rating
Irrigation water availability Drought tolerance 1.38
Overall vineyard vigour Vigour conferred by rootstock to scion 2.61
Soil salinity Tolerance to saline soil 3.25
Soil drainage Tolerance to waterlogging 3.33
Soil pH Tolerance to soil acidity 1.17
Soil pH Tolerance to soil lime 2.35
Occurrence of Nematodes Resistance to Root Knot Nematodes 3.89

*1 = low, 2 = low to moderate, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high

For reference information on these and all other rootstock attributes click on ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ below.

Notes:

  • Improves fruit set 56,57.
  • High yielding in hot climate of the Riverland 98.

Incompatible with: Cardinal10,15,23,102 and Malta Seedless10,23

Resistance to crown gall (Agrobacterium) 4 3,4,19 3,4,19
Resistance to Cylindrocarpon sp. 4 22 22
Resistance to Fusarium sp. 1 22 22
Resistance to Phytophthora sp. 4 22 22
Resistance to Pythium sp. 1 22 22
Resistance to Rhizoctonia sp. 4 22 22
Resistance to Downy Mildew Plasmopara viticola    
Resistance to Esca    
Resistance to Botryosphaeriaceae species 3 191 191
Drought tolerance 1 3,15,18,19,23,29,36,40,43,56,57,73,94,96,98,99,114,120,166,208 3 9,143 2 40,104,153 4 199 1-3 206 3,15,18,19,23,29,36,40,43,56,57,73,94,96,98,99,114,120,166,208,9,143,40,104,153,199,206
Tendency to K+ deficiency (potassium absorption)    
Scion grape juice pH 4 57,62,64,77 3-4 116 1 119 2 128,141 57,62,64,77,116,119,128,141
Scion grape juice TA 1 116,119 2 75 116,119,75
Scion grape juice Phenolics 4 75,114 75,114
Scion grape juice Anthocyanins 4 75,114 2 141 3 19 75,114,141,19
Scion grape juice chloride 1 106,118,122,128 2 116,125 3 75 106,118,122,128,116,125,75
Scion grape juice sodium 2 116 3-4 75 1 125,128,141 3 198 116,75,125,128,141,198
Scion grape juice Phosphorus    
Scion grape juice Nitrogen    
Scion grape juice Potassium 4 57,58,64,96 3 96 2 141 57,58,64,96,96,141
Tendency to Mg-deficiency 4 18 18
Nitrogen Uptake 2 56 56
Effects on maturity (dependant on crop load) *A 40,56,57,96 40,56,57,96
Yield 4 57,128,198 2 65,75,96,98,127 3-4 116 1 119 3 141 57,128,198,65,75,96,98,127,116,119,141
Rooting depth 4 8 8
Vegetative Cycle *S 18,56 18,56
Vigour conferred to scion (dependant on vine management and best practise viticulture) 1 56 3 3,15,19,23,29,40,57,98,99,102,104,127 1-4 4 2 18,65,96,166,208 56,3,15,19,23,29,40,57,98,99,102,104,127,4,18,65,96,166,208
Improves fruit set (&/or fertility) 4 3,56,96,98,123,187 3,56,96,98,123,187
Nematode Resistance 3 29 4 31,57,98,208 29,31,57,98,208
Citrus nematode resistance (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) 4 23,96 3 54 23,96,54
Dagger nematode resistance (Xiphinema index) 4 9,15,23,40,53,102 1 56 3 96 9,15,23,40,53,102,56,96
Pin Nematode Resistance (Criconemella Xenoplax)    
Root lesion nematode resistance (Pratylenchus spp.) 1 40,96 4 54 40,96,54
Rootknot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne spp.) 4 3,4,9,15,18,19,23,40,96,99,102,104 3 8 3-4 97 3,4,9,15,18,19,23,40,96,99,102,104,8,97
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. arenaria) - aggressive    
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. javanica) - 'standard' population 3 45 5 114,117,160 4 173 45,114,117,160,173
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. incognita) 1&5 160 160
Phylloxera resistance 4 3,4,9,15,23,31,36,40,57,99,102,104,166 3 19,25 5 29 4-5 206 3,4,9,15,23,31,36,40,57,99,102,104,166,19,25,29,206
Phylloxera resistance on leaves (ie tolerance to phylloxera leaf galls) 2 104 104
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 1 4 51,113 5 165 4-5 210 51,113,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 4 4 51 5 113,165,210 51,113,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 7 3 51,165 4 113,210 51,113,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 19 3 51,165 4 210 51,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 20 3 51,165 4 210 51,165,210
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 30 3 51,165 5 113 4-5 210 51,113,165,210
Ease of bench grafting 4 3,57 3,57
Ease of rooting 4 3,166 5 29,102,104 3,166,29,102,104
Affinity with V. vinifera    
Tolerance to saline soils 4 4,9,23 3 18,19,40,60,98,208 1 98 5 30 3-4 96 4,9,23,18,19,40,60,98,208,98,30,96,96
Salt Tolerance Index    
Tolerance to soil acidity 1 18,23,56,96,98 2 19 18,23,56,96,98,19
Tolerance to waterlogging 3 12,18,19,208 4 36,96 12,18,19,208,36,96
Lime tolerance (% = active lime). Lime-induced chlorosis = iron chlorosis 4 3,57 1 9,27,29,98,166 3 15,18,40,96,99,102,104 2 19,73,94 11% 32 3,57,9,27,29,98,166,15,18,40,96,99,102,104,19,73,94,32
Other Characteristics Improves fruit set 56,57. High yielding in hot climate of the Riverland 98 56,57,98
Information    
*Notes Effects on maturity: A = Advance; D = Delay
Vegetative cycle: L = Long; VL = Very Long; M = Medium; S = Short
 

Phylloxera information

As a risk management option, rootstocks can be used to reduce susceptibility of a vineyard to grape phylloxera, compared to the use of own-rooted Vitis vinifera, which is classified as field susceptible. There are currently 83 genetic strains of phylloxera in Australia. The ability of rootstocks to withstand phylloxera may vary depending on the strain or strains of phylloxera in the vineyard. Seven genetic strains, G1, G4, G7, G19, G20, G30 and G38 are currently maintained and used for rootstock screening. G1 and G4 have higher reproductive capabilities and predominate in Phylloxera Infested Zones (PIZs). Depending on the strain, rootstocks may be field susceptible, tolerant or resistant. The available information from field testing is shown for each rootstock. However, not all rootstocks have been field-tested against each of the main phylloxera strains. Only those tested are shown with a colour code. General rootstock rankings of susceptibility, tolerance or resistance to phylloxera have also been obtained from published international literature and are presented using the same ranking system.

Field susceptible rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera breeds freely and the vine is unable to withstand infestation.

Field tolerant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera can feed, reproduce and cause root galling, but to a lesser extent than on own-rooted grapevines.

Field resistant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera cannot develop beyond the first instar to the adult stage and cannot therefore lay eggs. Feeding does not result in root galling.

G1 G4 G7 G19 G20 G30 G38 General Ranking
Susceptible
Tolerant
Resistant
Not tested
See the distribution of the main phylloxera strains in Australia

SO4

Climate Cool
Vineyard Characteristics Rootstock Attributes *Weighted average rating
Irrigation water availability Drought tolerance 2.03
Overall vineyard vigour Vigour conferred by rootstock to scion 3.05
Soil salinity Tolerance to saline soil 1.7
Soil drainage Tolerance to waterlogging 3.09
Soil pH Tolerance to soil acidity 2.56
Soil pH Tolerance to soil lime 3.33
Occurrence of Nematodes Resistance to Root Knot Nematodes 2.5

*1 = low, 2 = low to moderate, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high

For reference information on these and all other rootstock attributes click on ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ below.

Notes:

  • Good in cool regions 15
  • May advance maturity and improve fruit set if vigour is controlled 96
  • Low magnesium uptake may contribute to bunch stem necrosis in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon 57,96,98.
  • Suited to varieties with poor set 57

Incompatible with: Carignan, Malvasia Bianca, Muscat Blanc, and in some situations with Shiraz10 and Servan32

Resistance to crown gall (Agrobacterium) 2 19,26 19,26
Resistance to Cylindrocarpon sp.    
Resistance to Fusarium sp. 2 155 155
Resistance to Phytophthora sp. 1 26,207 26,207
Resistance to Pythium sp.    
Resistance to Rhizoctonia sp.    
Resistance to Downy Mildew Plasmopara viticola    
Resistance to Esca 2 148 148
Resistance to Botryosphaeriaceae species 2 191  
Drought tolerance 1 9,15,18,26,29,36,52,96,98,102,103,139,207 2 19,56,143,199,205 3 23,24,73,94,104,166 4 47,49,73,102 2-3 140 1-3 142 1-4 206 9,15,18,26,29,36,52,96,98,102,103,139,207,19,56,143,199,205 3 23,24,73,94,104,166,47,49,73,102,140,142,206
Tendency to K+ deficiency (potassium absorption) 1 24 24
Scion grape juice pH 1 15,57,61,62,74,95 4 74,171 2 119,128 15,57,61,62,74,95,74,171,119,128
Scion grape juice TA 2 119 4 171,190,201,202 119,171,190,201,202
Scion grape juice Phenolics    
Scion grape juice Anthocyanins 3 202 202
Scion grape juice chloride 1-2 119 119
Scion grape juice sodium 2 119,201 3 171,202 1 63 119,201,171,202,63
Scion grape juice Phosphorus 3 171 171
Scion grape juice Nitrogen    
Scion grape juice Potassium 4 74,88,92,171 1 96 2 201,202 74,88,92,171,96,201,202
Tendency to Mg-deficiency 4 18,24,56,57,88,96,98 18,24,56,57,88,96,98
Nitrogen Uptake 4 56,162 56,162
Effects on maturity (dependant on crop load) *A 32,57,96,103 *D 23,57,201,202 32,57,96,103,23,57,201,202
Yield 4-3 96 4 57,98,119,155,171,180 2 65 3 154,185,190 5 188 96,57,98,119,155,171,180,65,154,185,190,188
Rooting depth 1 23 3 131,206 23,131,206
Vegetative Cycle *M 18,52,56 18,52,56
Vigour conferred to scion (dependant on vine management and best practise viticulture) 3-4 3,24,56,57,96,166 4 36,37,177,180,207 3 15,18,23,29,56,98,102,103,104,131,185,188,190 2 19,26,52,65,127,128 1 36 4-5 142 3,24,56,57,96,166,36,37,177,180,207,15,18,23,29,56,98,102,103,104,131,185,188,190,19,26,52,65,127,128,36,142
Improves fruit set (&/or fertility) 4 23,96,154 23,96,154
Nematode Resistance 4 29,36,52,57,74,98,103 3 207 29,36,52,57,74,98,103,207
Citrus nematode resistance (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) 1 96 96
Dagger nematode resistance (Xiphinema index) 3 9,15,102,104 1 96,206 9,15,102,104,96,206
Pin Nematode Resistance (Criconemella Xenoplax)    
Root lesion nematode resistance (Pratylenchus spp.) 3 96 96
Rootknot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne spp.) 4 24,26 3 9,15,18,19,102,104 3-4 96 1 101 24,26,9,15,18,19,102,104,96,101
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. arenaria) - aggressive    
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. javanica) - 'standard' population 1 101,114,117,173 2 160 4 161 101,114,117,173,160,161
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. incognita) 1 101 1&5 160 101,160
Phylloxera resistance 3 9,19,26,104,207 5 15,29,102 4 23,36,37,57,74,104,166,206 9,19,26,104,207,15,29,102,23,36,37,57,74,104,166,206
Phylloxera resistance on leaves (ie tolerance to phylloxera leaf galls) 1 44 2 104 44,104
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 1    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 4    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 7    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 19    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 20    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 30    
Ease of bench grafting 4 96 5 32 2 52 3 103 1&4 166 96,32,52,103,166
Ease of rooting 4 57,103,188 3 26 5 29,102,104 1 32 2 52 1&4 166 57,103,188,26,29,102,104,32,52,166
Affinity with V. vinifera 4 26,188,207 5 32 3 36,52 26,188,207,32,36,52
Tolerance to saline soils 1 18,19,26,89,96,206,207 4 114 3 144,205 18,19,26,89,96,206,207,114,144,205
Salt Tolerance Index    
Tolerance to soil acidity 1 13,18,19 3 56,57,96,98 4 74,207 13,18,19,56,57,96,98,74,207,52
Tolerance to waterlogging 4 26,96,207 1 12 3 18,19,24,52,56,103,205 26,96,207,12,18,19,24,52,56,103,205
Lime tolerance (% = active lime). Lime-induced chlorosis = iron chlorosis 17-18% 96,98 3 15,19,29,73,102,104,159,166,207 4 18,57, 68,73,74,88,94,98 20% 32 17% 36,52,73 2 56,206 3-4 96 96,98,15,19,29,73,102,104,159,166,207,18,57, 68,73,74,88,94,98,32,36,52,73,56,206,96
Other Characteristics Good in cool regions.15 May advance maturity and improve fruit set if vigour is controlled 96. Low magnesium uptake may contribute to bunch stem necrosis in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon 57,96,98. Suited to varieties with poor set 57 57,96,98,15
Information    
*Notes Effects on maturity: A = Advance; D = Delay
Vegetative cycle: L = Long; VL = Very Long; M = Medium; S = Short
 

Phylloxera information

As a risk management option, rootstocks can be used to reduce susceptibility of a vineyard to grape phylloxera, compared to the use of own-rooted Vitis vinifera, which is classified as field susceptible. There are currently 83 genetic strains of phylloxera in Australia. The ability of rootstocks to withstand phylloxera may vary depending on the strain or strains of phylloxera in the vineyard. Seven genetic strains, G1, G4, G7, G19, G20, G30 and G38 are currently maintained and used for rootstock screening. G1 and G4 have higher reproductive capabilities and predominate in Phylloxera Infested Zones (PIZs). Depending on the strain, rootstocks may be field susceptible, tolerant or resistant. The available information from field testing is shown for each rootstock. However, not all rootstocks have been field-tested against each of the main phylloxera strains. Only those tested are shown with a colour code. General rootstock rankings of susceptibility, tolerance or resistance to phylloxera have also been obtained from published international literature and are presented using the same ranking system.

Field susceptible rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera breeds freely and the vine is unable to withstand infestation.

Field tolerant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera can feed, reproduce and cause root galling, but to a lesser extent than on own-rooted grapevines.

Field resistant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera cannot develop beyond the first instar to the adult stage and cannot therefore lay eggs. Feeding does not result in root galling.

G1 G4 G7 G19 G20 G30 G38 General Ranking
Susceptible
Tolerant
Resistant
Not tested
See the distribution of the main phylloxera strains in Australia

Teleki 5C

Climate Cool Warm
Vineyard Characteristics Rootstock Attributes *Weighted average rating
Irrigation water availability Drought tolerance 1.91
Overall vineyard vigour Vigour conferred by rootstock to scion 2.65
Soil salinity Tolerance to saline soil 1.83
Soil drainage Tolerance to waterlogging 1
Soil pH Tolerance to soil acidity 1.14
Soil pH Tolerance to soil lime 3.06
Occurrence of Nematodes Resistance to Root Knot Nematodes 2.86

*1 = low, 2 = low to moderate, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high

For reference information on these and all other rootstock attributes click on ‘Information about all attributes for this rootstock’ below.

Notes:

  • Good for varieties with poor set 3,56,57,98.

Incompatible with: Servan32

Resistance to crown gall (Agrobacterium) 1 74 74
Resistance to Cylindrocarpon sp.    
Resistance to Fusarium sp.    
Resistance to Phytophthora sp.    
Resistance to Pythium sp.    
Resistance to Rhizoctonia sp.    
Resistance to Downy Mildew Plasmopara viticola    
Resistance to Esca    
Resistance to Botryosphaeriaceae species 2 191 191
Drought tolerance 3 3,57,96,166,199 1 18,20,21,36, 94,143,208 2 19,56,68,73 2-3 206 3,57,96,166,199,18,20,21,36, 94,143,208,19,56,68,73,206
Tendency to K+ deficiency (potassium absorption) 4 30,168 3 164 30,168.164
Scion grape juice pH 2 30,119 3 33 1 74,77,176 30,119,33,74,77,176
Scion grape juice TA 2 30,119 3 33,77 4 33,176 30,119,33,77,33,176
Scion grape juice Phenolics 3 33 4 33,114 33,33,114
Scion grape juice Anthocyanins 4 33,82 33,82
Scion grape juice chloride 3 33 2 119,122 33,119,122
Scion grape juice sodium 1 33 3 33 2 119 33,33,119
Scion grape juice Phosphorus    
Scion grape juice Nitrogen 3 33 33
Scion grape juice Potassium 3 33 4 33 1 68,74,96 33,33,68,74,96
Tendency to Mg-deficiency 4 96,164 1 168 96,164,168
Nitrogen Uptake 2 56 4 164 56,164
Effects on maturity (dependant on crop load) *A 3,32,33,57,96 3,32,33,57,96
Yield 1 59 3-4 57,96,119 59,57,96,119
Rooting depth 4 20 2 131 20,131
Vegetative Cycle *M 18,34 L 56 18,34,56
Vigour conferred to scion (dependant on vine management and best practise viticulture) 3 3,18,19,56,57,96,98,102,184,208 1 36,45 3-4 56,166 2 68,77,131 3,18,19,56,57,96,98,102,184,208,36,45,56,166,68,77,131
Improves fruit set (&/or fertility) 4 23,56,96 1 123 23,56,96,123
Nematode Resistance 4 57,98 3 208 57,98,208
Citrus nematode resistance (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) 4 33 1 96 33,96
Dagger nematode resistance (Xiphinema index) 3 102 1 56,96 102,56,96
Pin Nematode Resistance (Criconemella Xenoplax) 2 33 3 33 4 33 33,33,33
Root lesion nematode resistance (Pratylenchus spp.) 3 30,96,97 30,96,97
Rootknot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne spp.) 4 3,33 3 18,19,30,96,102 3,33,18,19,30,96,102
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. arenaria) - aggressive    
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. javanica) - 'standard' population 3 45 1 114,117 2 160 5 194 45,114,117,160,194
Rootknot Nematode resistance. (M. incognita) 1 160 5 194 160,194
Phylloxera resistance 5 3,102 3 19,23,25 1 26 4 36,57,69,166,206 3,102,19,23,25,26,36,57,69,166,206
Phylloxera resistance on leaves (ie tolerance to phylloxera leaf galls)    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 1    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 4    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 7    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 19    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 20    
Phylloxera resistance to genotype 30    
Ease of bench grafting 4 3,57 5 32 1&4 166 3,57,32,166
Ease of rooting 4 3,57 1 32 1&4 166 3,57,32,166
Affinity with V. vinifera 4 32 32
Tolerance to saline soils 1 18,102,208 3 19,68 2 96 18,102,208,19,68,96,96
Salt Tolerance Index    
Tolerance to soil acidity 1 18,23,56,96,98,102 2 19 18,23,56,96,98,102,19
Tolerance to waterlogging 1 3,18,208 3,18,208
Lime tolerance (% = active lime). Lime-induced chlorosis = iron chlorosis 4 3,18 3 19,96,102,166 20% 32,68 2 56 2-3 73 3,18,19,96,102,166,32,68,56,73
Other Characteristics Good for varieties with poor set 3,56,57,98 3,56,57,98
Information SARDI long term rootstock trial 208 observed Teleki 5C vigour: (1) smaller canopies than vines grafted to other rootstocks and (2) significant age related yield decline observed at a number of sites. 208
*Notes Effects on maturity: A = Advance; D = Delay
Vegetative cycle: L = Long; VL = Very Long; M = Medium; S = Short
 

Phylloxera information

As a risk management option, rootstocks can be used to reduce susceptibility of a vineyard to grape phylloxera, compared to the use of own-rooted Vitis vinifera, which is classified as field susceptible. There are currently 83 genetic strains of phylloxera in Australia. The ability of rootstocks to withstand phylloxera may vary depending on the strain or strains of phylloxera in the vineyard. Seven genetic strains, G1, G4, G7, G19, G20, G30 and G38 are currently maintained and used for rootstock screening. G1 and G4 have higher reproductive capabilities and predominate in Phylloxera Infested Zones (PIZs). Depending on the strain, rootstocks may be field susceptible, tolerant or resistant. The available information from field testing is shown for each rootstock. However, not all rootstocks have been field-tested against each of the main phylloxera strains. Only those tested are shown with a colour code. General rootstock rankings of susceptibility, tolerance or resistance to phylloxera have also been obtained from published international literature and are presented using the same ranking system.

Field susceptible rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera breeds freely and the vine is unable to withstand infestation.

Field tolerant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera can feed, reproduce and cause root galling, but to a lesser extent than on own-rooted grapevines.

Field resistant rootstock: is a rootstock on which phylloxera cannot develop beyond the first instar to the adult stage and cannot therefore lay eggs. Feeding does not result in root galling.

G1 G4 G7 G19 G20 G30 G38 General Ranking
Susceptible
Tolerant
Resistant
Not tested
See the distribution of the main phylloxera strains in Australia

Wine Australia
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